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Toxicology

General

Education

Research

Curriculum

Graduate Program | M.S. (Plan A) and Ph.D | M.S . (Plan B) | Curriculum

Curriculum Requirements for the Ph.D. Degree

Required courses:

Toxicology Electives

Required courses

Biomedical Base

  • IBS 601 Biomolecules and Metabolism  (3)
  • IBS 602 Biomolecules and Molecular Biology (3)
  • IBS 603 Cell Biology (3)
  • IBS 604 Cell Signaling (3)
  • IBS 605 Genetics (2)
  • IBS 606 Integrated Biomedical Sciences (4)
  • PHA 621 Advanced Pharmacodynamics (3)
  • STA 570 Basic Statistic Analysis (4) OR
  • STA 580 Biostatistics (3)
  • TOX 600 Ethics in Scientific Research (1)

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Toxicological Base

  • TOX 509 Biochemical and Environmental Toxicology (3)
  • TOX 680 Molecular Mechanisms in Toxicology (5)
  • TOX 770-001 Toxicology Seminar (0-1) *
  • TOX 770-002 Journal Club/Analysis and Grant-Submission of Scientific Data for First Year Toxicology Students (1) **
  • TOX 780 Special Problem: Literature Search and Written Report (2)

* Until residency requirements are completed, TOX 770-001 must be elected each semester for zero credits, and a seminar given following the Qualifying examination during their third or fourth year.

**TOX 770-002 must be elected by all first year students.

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Specialty Electives

  • At least one advanced class recommended by the Advisory Committee.

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Sample Curriculum for Toxicology Students

First Year Fall Semester

  • IBS 601 Biomolecules and Metabolism (3)
  • IBS 603 Cell Biology (3)
  • IBS 605 Genetics (3)
  • TOX 770-001 Toxicology Seminar (0)
  • TOX 770-002 Journal Club for First Year Toxicology Students (1)

First Year Spring Semester

  • IBS 602 General Biochemistry (3)
  • IBS 604 Cell Signaling (3)
  • IBS 606 Integrated Biomedical Sciences (4)
  • TOX 600 Ethics in Scientific Research (1)
  • TOX 770-001 Toxicology Seminar (1)

 

Second Year Fall

  • STA 570 Basic Statistical Analysis for Biomedical Students (4) OR STA 580 Biostatistics (3)
  • TOX 770-001 Toxicology Seminar (0)
  • TOX 509 Biochemical and Environmental Toxicology (3)
  • PHA 621 Advanced Pharmacodynamics (3)

    Second Year Spring

    • TOX 770-001 Toxicology Seminar (0)
    • TOX 680 Molecular Mechanisms in Toxicology (5)
    • TOX 780 Special Problem: Literature Search and Written Report (2)
    • Required Elective course or TOX 790 Toxicology Research (Variable credit, if needed for full-time, up to 9)

Second Year Summer

  • Ph.D. Qualifying Exams
  • Closed Book Written Exam - June
  • Proposal and Oral Defense - Late August-September


Third Year Fall

  • TOX 767 Residence Credit Research (2)
  • TOX 770-001 Toxicology seminar (0)

All requirements of the core curriculum must be met by doctoral students. Total course requirements (prerequisites, core courses, non-core courses and recommended electives) for both M.S. and Ph.D. students will be recommended by the student's Advisory Committee taking into account the background and special interests of the individual student. The academic load is designed to allow students a minimum of 20 hours per week for engaging in thesis and dissertation research.

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Course Descriptions

Biomedical base

IBS 601 Biomolecules and Metabolism (3)
An introductory course devoted to the structure and function of proteins and enzymes and the generation and storage of metabolic energy associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Prerequesites: CHE 107, CHE 230 and 232, or equivalent. BIO 152 is also recommended. (Same as BCH 607).

IBS 602 Biomolecules and Molecular Biology (3)
A continuation of BCH 607. The topics discussed include the molecular basis of gene expression; molecular endocrinology; biochemistry of connective tissue, muscle, erythrocyte, and the immune system; structure, function and metabolism of membranes. The sequence BCH 607, BCH 608 covers the material of BCH 811. Prerequisites: BCH 607 or equivalent. (Same as BCH 608).

IBS 603 Cell Biology (3)
An introduction to cell biology and signaling focused on cell types and architecture, membrane structure, cytoskeletons, mitochondria, cellular mechanisms of development, cell division, cell cycle, apoptosis and prokaryotic cell biology and modulation by bacterial pathogens. Prerequisites: CHE 105, 107, 230 and 232; BIO 150, 152; or equivalent.

IBS 604 Cell Signalling (3)
An introductory course on cell biology and signaling focused on inter- and intracellular communication, from the generation of signaling molecules to cellular responses, including transcriptional regulation. Examination of cellular and molecular techniques important to understanding key advances in cell signaling will be included. Prerequisites: CHE 105, 107, 230 and 232; BIO 150 and 152; or equivalents.

IBS 605 Experimental Genetics (2)
An introductory genetics course designed to expose first-year graduate students to contemporary methods and concepts of genetic analysis. Where possible, model systems will be presented as paradigms to illustrate important concepts. Prerequisites: CHE 105, 107; 230 and 232; BIO 150 and 152; or equivalents. (Same as MI 604).

IBS 606 Integrated Biomedical Sciences (4)
Consideration of the function of the mammalian organism from a perspective ranging from the cellular/sub-cellular to the organ system and whole organ designed to allow students in the IBS curriculum to develop a truly integrative appreciation of biologic function. Prerequisites: IBS 601, 603 and 605.

PGY 502 Principles of Systems, Cellular and Molecular Physiology (5)
Advanced survey of major mammalian physiological systems at the systems, cellular and molecular level; lectures, assigned reading, advanced texts or monographs, demonstrations and problem oriented study questions. Prerequisites: One year each, physics, general chemistry, PGY 206 or its equivalent. (Same as BIO 502).

STA 570 Basic Statistical Analysis (4)
Introduction to methods of analyzing data from experiments and surveys; the role of statistics in research, statistical concepts and models; probability and distribution functions; estimation; hypothesis testing; regression and correlation; analysis of single and multiple classification models; analysis of categorical data. Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours. Prerequisites: MA 109 or equivalent. Toxicology graduate students are encouraged to enroll in the section(s), taught by Dr. Dick Kryscio, which will emphasize the design and analysis of laboratory experiments.

STA 580 Basic Statistics (3)
Primarily statistics in the biological, behavioral and social sciences, this course is an introduction to methods of analyzing data from experiments and surveys; the role of statistics in research, statistical concepts and models; probability and distribution functions; estimation; hypothesis testing; regression and correlation; analysis of single and multiple classification models; analysis of categorical data. Lecture, three hours/week; laboratory, two hours/week. Prereq: MA 109 or equivalent.

TOX 600 Ethics in Scientific Research (2)
The course will commence with an overview of good laboratory practices and present them as the basis of good scientific research, along with an overview of quality assurance and appropriate practices in data analysis and data interpretation. The course will then move to the ethics of human and animal experimentation and discuss the concepts of data and intellectual property, their ownership and access to them. The problems of reviewing other workers' intellectual property such as grant applications, research papers and other intellectual property will be addressed. Prerequisites: Research experience; consent of instructor. (Same as VS 600.)

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Toxicological Base

TOX 509 Biochemical and Environmental Toxicology (3)
Presentation of basic and advanced concepts to provide an integrated description of toxicology, its scope, the unique application of principles that characterize it as a science, and its professional practice. Prerequisites: BCH 607 and PHA 522 or equivalents or consent of instructor.

TOX 680 Molecular Mechanism in Toxicology (5)
An intensive examination of the chemistry and action of substances which adversely affect living systems, and consideration of means of lessening their impact on man and the environment. Prerequisites: TOX 509 or consent of Director of Graduate Studies.

TOX 770-001 Toxicology Seminar (0-1)
A specialized seminar focusing on current topics of toxicological significance. Registration each fall and spring semester required of all toxicology graduate students until residency requirements for the degree have been completed. Graduate Students presenting a seminar may sign up for one credit. May be repeated to a maximum number of two credits during entire graduate course work. Graduate students not presenting a seminar should enroll for zero credits.

TOX 770-002 Journal Club for First Year Toxicology Students (1)
Journal Club is a specialized seminar for first year graduate students, intended to introduce them to campus resources available to them and to acquaint them with the current toxicology literature.

TOX 780 Special Problems in Toxicology (2)
Exposure to and actual research experience in an area of toxicology other than that encountered by students in their thesis and dissertation research. May be repeated to a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: Consent of graduate adviser. (Same as PHR 645.)

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Toxicology Electives

BIO 615 Molecular Biology (3)
An integrative and functional approach to the regulatory aspects of DNA, RNA and proteins in procaryotic and eucaryotic cells. Lectures and discussions with readings in original literature. Prerequisites: A course in genetics (e.g. BIO 404G) and a course in nucleic acids and elementary molecular biology (e.g. BCH 608) or consent of instructor. (Same as BCH/MI 615.)

BIO 618 Molecular Neurobiology  (4)
This course provides knowledge base and analytical skills in the field of molecular neurobiology. An in-depth introduction to current technologies, their rationale and limitations, will be the focus to address normal brain function and neuropathological conditions. (Same as MI 618).

BIO 632 Advanced Cell Biology I (3)
A molecular level treatment of cell structure and function derived from current experimental approaches. Eukaryotes will be stressed. Topics will usually include membrane structure and function, the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix, and bioenergetics. Lectures and discussions with reading in the original literature. Prerequisites: BIO 404G or equivalent; Corequisites: BCH 607 or equivalent, or consent of instructor.

BIO 633 Advanced Cell Biology II (3)
This course is a companion to BIO 632. Topics will usually include a molecular level discussion of gene structure, gene expression, and gene regulation, followed by the cell and molecular biology of cell proliferation, development, and differentiation. Lectures and discussions with reading in the original literature. Prerequisites: BIO 404G of equivalent, BCH 607 or equivalent, or consent of instructor.

MI 611 Biopathology (3)
The course will examine the mechanisms by which various biological, chemical and physical agents injure susceptible hosts and the complex biochemical and immunological reactions which occur in response to injury. The host defense mechanisms will be illustrated by an analysis of selected human diseases and animal model systems with particular emphasis on the events at the molecular and cellular level. Prerequisites: BCH 608 or concurrent, BIO/MI 494G or equivalents and consent of instructor. (Same as BIO 611.)

MI 616 Biology and Therapy of Cancer (3)
Biology of cancer will be discussed at the molecular, cellular and organismic level. Emphasis will be placed on cellular signaling, apostosis and cell cycle unique to cancer cells, which affects tumor cell behavior and its interactions with the host immune system. The biology of hematopoitic cells will also be included. Clinicians active in treatment and research of various types of cancer will be invited to participate in the lectures. Prerequisites: BCH 501, 502, BIO 685. (Same as MED 616.)

PHA 649 Molecular Pharmocology (3)
The intent of this course is to describe the molecular aspects of a variety of physiological systems that are subject to pharmacological manipulation. Emphasis will be on the molecular genetics, biochemistry, and subcellular organization and biology of these systems; and on the pharmacological techniques used to study these systems. Genetic diseases associated with these systems will also be described. The course will focus on areas of research which represent the forefront of modern pharmacological investigation. Prerequisites: PHA 522, PGY 502, BCH 501, 502, or consent of instructor. (Same as PHR/TOX 649.)

PHR 612 Quantitative Pharmacodynamics (3)
Quantitative treatment of dynamics of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, including development of both mathematical models and model-independent approaches for describing these processes. Prereq: PHR 802 (or equivalent), MA 114 and consent of instructor. (Same as PHA 612).

PHR 664 Theory and Practice of Drug Metabolism (3)
A broad overview of the chemistry of drug biotransformation with emphasis on experimental considerations and analytic methodology for the isolation and identification of metabolites and the study of metabolic processes. Prerequisites: BCH 607 and CHE 538 or consent of instructor.

TOX 650 Cellular and Histotoxicology (2)
A systematic review of morphological responses to body trauma with special reference to toxic agents. The course is planned to consist of formal presentations and of discussion sessions (primarily interpretation of micro-scopic preparations). Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. (Same as VS 650.)

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Specialty Electives

(The following list is provided as possible suggested electives and is not intended to exclude other courses.)

ANA 636 Advanced Neuroanatomy (3-5)
The objectives include specific and detailed correlation of microscopic and ultrastructural morphology of structures in the nervous system with function of these structures. Emphasis will be placed on structure-function relationships, neurotransmitters, chemical constituents of the nervous system, neuronal as well as non-neuronal cells, plasticity of the nervous system and developmental biology. The detailed content and emphasis will depend on both the background and goals of the students. Depending on number of credits a student registers for, and the topic and course orientation, laboratory work, library work, written and/or oral presentations may be a course requirement. Prerequisites: ANA 511, 512, 513, 516, or equivalents, or consent of instructor.

BCH 610 Biochemistry of Lipids and Membranes (3)
A lecture and seminar course devoted to intermediary metabolism of lipids and various biochemical aspects of the structure, assembly and functions of biological membrane systems. Prerequisites: CHE 232, CHE 444G, BCH 401G, 608 or 811. BCH 608 may be taken concurrently.

BCH 611 Biochemistry and Cell Biology of Nucleic Acids (3)
A lecture and seminar course devoted to a study of the principles of nucleic acid chemistry and to the role of nucleic acids in cellular function. Prereq: BCH 401G, 608 or 811. Primarily a lecture course devoted to the relationship of the structure of protein molecules to their biological roles. Proteins will be discussed in terms of their size, shape, conformation, primary structure, catalytic mechanism and regulatory properties. Prerequisites: BCH 401G, 608 or 811; CHE 444G or consent of instructor. May be taken concurrently with BCH 608.

BCH 612 Structure and Function of Proteins and Enzymes (3)
Primarily a lecture course devoted to the relationship of the structure of protein molecules to their biological roles. Proteins will be discussed in terms of their size, shape, conformation, primary structure, catalytic mechanism and regulatory properties.

BIO 451G Introductory Ecology (4)
A nonlaboratory course in basic ecology taught jointly by botany and zoology departments. Will stress the ecosystem approach to understanding the interrelationships between organisms and their environment including current environmental problems. Lecture, three hours; recitation, one hour. Prerequisites: BIO 150-153 or BIO 104-107 or consent of instructor.

BIO 542 Histology (5)
An intensive study of vertebrate histology at the tissue, cell and subcell levels with emphasis on human tissues. Some knowledge of cell biology, biochemistry, physiology and anatomy is desirable. The laboratory involves study of prepared microscope slides. Lecture, three hours per week; laboratory, four hours per week. Prerequisites: BIO 152 or BIO 315 or BIO 340 or consent of instructor.

BIO 544 Embryology (5)
A comparative study of chordate development, stressing morphogenesis and reproduction of vertebrate species and evolutionary changes in ontogeny. Laboratory devoted principally to development of the frog, chick and pig. Three lectures and two two-hour laboratories per week. Prerequisite: BIO 340.

BIO 553 Fish Biology (4)
This course explores the biology of fishes from an evolutionary perspective. Lectures cover physiology, functional morphology, ecology, population biology, behavior, evolutionary relationships, and fisheries biology. Laboratory exercises include development of a fish collection; experiments in fish physiology, behavior and ecology; computer modeling of problems in fisheries biology; and field trips. Lecture, two hours; laboratory, four hours per week. Prerequisites: BIO 150,151, 152; and 153 or consent of instructor.

CHE 522 Instrumental Analysis (4)
The theory and application of instrumental methods of analysis. Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours. Prerequisites or concur: CHE 422G or 444G.

CHE 532 Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds (2)
Problems involving the use of nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and differential chemical reactivity in determining the structure of organic compounds. Discussion of chemical and physical methods for separation of mixtures of organic compounds. Prerequisites: CHE 231 and CHE 232.

CHE 538 Principles of Organic Chemistry (3)
A general survey of the field of organic chemistry. Topics emphasized are: mechanistic principles relating molecular structure to reaction outcome, stereoisomerism and its effect on chemical reactivity, and simple molecular orbital theory as required to understand aromaticity and to predict the occurrence and stereochemistry of pericyclic reactions. Prerequisite: CHE 232.

ES 610 Engineering and Physical Sciences in Environmental Systems (3)
Earth systems: environmental impacts of natural and human processes; the role of water systems on the earth including surface water systems, groundwater systems, and water quality and contamination systems; the role of atmospheric systems on earth including the nature and source of air pollutants, meteorological principles, radiation balance, climatology and air pollution, and air pollution control methodology; and processes and principles involved in waste producing organizations. Prerequisite: Freshman chemistry.

ES 620 Natural, Biological and Medical Sciences in Environmental Systems (3)
A survey course for students outside the biological and medical sciences. Concepts in environmental systems, toxicology, ecology and the environments, ecotoxicology and environmental health. Prerequisites: A background in physical sciences or introductory biology and chemistry.

ES 630 Legal, Social and Economic Sciences in Environmental Systems (3)
Jurisprudential history, ethics and rule of law, environmental economics, history of science, governmental structures, process for development and enforcement of standards, social/political implications of environmental systems, regulatory schemes for environmental control.

GLY 530 Low Temperature Geochemistry (3)
An introduction to sedimentary and environmental geochemistry, including carbonate equilibria, coal and petroleum geochemistry, and the geochemistry of aqueous contaminants. Prerequisites: GLY 260 and MA 114 or consent of instructor.

MI 595 Immunobiology Laboratory (2)
Laboratory in immunology and serology. Preparation, standardization, and uses of biological products; serology. Laboratory; four hours. Prerequisites: BIO/MI 494G or concurrently; or consent of instructor. (Same as BIO 595.)

MI 685 Advanced Immunobiology (4)
An introductory level graduate course surveying current trends in immunology including the organization and structure of cells relevant to immunity, immunochemistry, types of immune responses, cellular immunology, immunogenetics and immunopathology. Prerequisites: BCH 401G, or BCH 607 or 608 or equivalent, or consent of instructor. (Same as BIO 685.)

MI 707 Contemporary Topics in Immunology (2)
This course will deal with controversial and evolving areas of immunology. Lectures in a given topic will be accompanied by student discussion of contemporary literature. Prerequisites: MI 685 or equivalent or consent of instructor. (Same as BIO 707.)

NEU 605 Principles of Neurobiology (4)
The objective of this course is to provide graduate students of diverse backgrounds with an introduction and overview of neurobiology. Areas covered will include neuronal and glial cell biology, neurotransmitters, signaling mechanisms, neuroanatomy, and neuronal development. The course is designed to provide a brief overview of each of the areas and introduce students to current research questions. The course will consist of lectures and informal presentations in a "Journal Club" format. The course will be interdisciplinary and will be of interest to graduate students in anatomy, biology, biochemistry, immunology, pharmacy, pharmacology, physiology, psychology and toxicology and to neurology and neurosurgery residents. Prerequisites: Introductory biochemistry courses, or equivalent, and/or consent of instructor. (Same as ANA/BCH/PGY/PHA 605.)

PHA 634 Advanced Cardiovascular Pharmacology (2)
A discussion of the mechanism of action, dosing theory, toxicity and metabolism of drugs used as therapeutic agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.  Prereq:  Consent of instructor. 

PHA 658 Advanced Neuropharmacology (3)
A study of the general theories of the mode of action of drugs upon nervous tissue and a review of the effects of analgesics, sedatives, hypnotics, anesthetics, tranquilizers, psychotomimetics, analeptics, antidepressants, anti-convulsants and drugs affecting motor dyskinesias upon neurons, synapses and functional components of the central nervous system. Prerequisites: PGY 412G or equivalent and PHA 522 or equivalent; consent of instructor.

PHR 510 Modern Methods in Pharmaceutical Analysis (5)
A course which deals with the application of modern analytical methods, primarily instrumental methods, in the determination of the strength, purity, and quality of drugs and pharmaceuticals. Laboratory exercises include analysis of raw materials and finished dosage forms. Lecture, three hours; laboratory, four hours. Prerequisite: CHE 226.

PM 521 Epidemiology (4)
Initial graduate level course in the principles of epidemiology and its uses and applications in preventive medicine and public health. Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours per week. Prerequisites: Graduate students in Public health and Nursing students in the Community Health Management component graduate program and consent of instructor.

PM 601 Environmental and Occupational Health (4)
An overview of occupational and environmental health problems, toxicology related to the work place and other environments, industrial hygiene, safety, and other topics relevant to environmental health. Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours per week. Prerequisites: PHA 603 and PGY 502 or equivalents, or consent of instructor.

PM 602 Occupational and Environmental Health (4)
A continuation of topics in PM 601. Lecture, three hours; laboratory, two hours per week. Prerequisites: PM 601 or consent of instructor.

STA 671 Regression and Correlation (2)
Simple linear regression, elementary matrix algebra and its application to simple linear regression; general linear model, multiple regression, analysis of variance tables, testing of subhypotheses, nonlinear regression, step-wise regression; partial and multiple correlation. Emphasis upon use of computer library routines; other special topics according to the interests of the class. Lecture, three hours per week. laboratory, two hours per week for seven and one half weeks. Offered the first or second half of each semester. Prerequisites: STA 570 or EDP 557.

STA 672 Design and Analysis of Experiments (2)
Review of one-way analysis of variance; planned and unplanned individual comparisons, including contrasts and orthogonal polynomials; factorial experiments; completely randomized, randomized block, Latin square, and split-plot designs; relative efficiency, expected mean squares; multiple regression analysis for balanced and unbalanced experiments, analysis of covariance. Lecture, three hours per week; laboratory, two hours per week for seven and a half weeks. Offered the first or second half of each semester. Prerequisite: STA 671.

TOX 660 Clinical Toxicology and Drug Monitoring (3)
A lecture and demonstration course designed to acquaint the student with the two main areas of clinical toxicology. The first part of the course will cover the scope of the drug abuse problem in the U.S.A. and detail the emerging role of the clinical toxicologist in dealing with a wide variety of analytical and medicolegal problems associated with illicit drug detection. The second part of the course will cover the rapidly expanding area of clinical toxicology which deals with the monitoring of therapeutic drugs as they relate to the appropriate clinical management of patients. Prerequisites: BCH 607 and 608, PHA 521 and 522 or equivalent with consent of instructor. (Same as PAT 660.)

New courses are continually being developed by faculty throughout the University. Permission to substitute a new course for an elective should be obtained from the DGS and the students' Advisory Committee.

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