KENTUCKY FACE* PROJECT

 

ANNUAL REPORT

 

2001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

KENTUCKY INJURY PREVENTION AND RESEARCH CENTER

 

*Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation

Cooperative Agreement Number U60/CCU409879-07/08

 


 

 

The Kentucky Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (KY FACE) Project is an occupational fatality surveillance project of the Kentucky Injury Prevention and Research Center (KIPRC)*.  Its primary purposes are to collect data on work-related fatalities and to develop prevention strategies and interventions, which are disseminated to employers, workers, agencies with interests in public health, and others who may be in a position to effect change.  The goal of FACE is to prevent fatal work injuries by studying the work environment, the worker, the task the worker was performing, the tools the worker was using, the energy exchange resulting in fatal injury, and the role of management in controlling how these factors interact. FACE investigators evaluate information from multiple sources that may include interviews of employers, workers, and other investigators; examination and measurement of the fatality site and related equipment; and review of records such as Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), police, and medical examiner reports, and employer safety procedures, and training plans. The FACE program does not seek to determine fault or place blame on companies or individual workers. Findings are summarized in narrative reports that include recommendations for preventing similar events in the future.

 

 

For more detailed information concerning KY FACE, or to obtain additional copies of this report, contact:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Terry Bunn, PhD, Project Manager

Kentucky Injury Prevention and Research Center

333 Waller Avenue, Suite 202

Lexington, KY  40504-2915

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEL:  (859) 257-4955

FAX:  (859) 257-3909

www.kiprc.uky.edu

 

 

 

 

 

*Organizationally, KIPRC is part of the University of Kentucky School of Public Health.  It maintains a contractual relationship with the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH).  Funding for the KY FACE Project is from a cooperative agreement between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and KDPH that is subsequently contracted to KIPRC.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

List of Tables. 4

List of Figures. 5

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.. 6

PROGRESS TOWARD PROGRAM OBJECTIVES. 7

SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM... 9

INVESTIGATION PROGRAM... 10

PREVENTION/INTERVENTION ACTIVITIES. 12

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 14

Notification of Cases. 14

When and Where.. 15

Demographics. 21

Industry.. 23

External Cause of Death.. 32

Occupation.. 33

Special Topics. 39

Deaths Caused By Trees. 39

Deaths due to Hyperthermia.. 39

Explosions. 40

Women.. 41

Average Time of Death After Injury.. 46

Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) 47

Future Aims of Kentucky FACE Program... 50

REFERENCES. 51

Appendices. 53

Appendix A.. 54

Appendix B.. 59

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

PROGRESS TOWARD PROGRAM OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM...................................................................................................................................................................................... 12

INVESTIGATION PROGRAM...................................................................................................................................................................................... 12

PREVENTION/INTERVENTION ACTIVITIES...................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS...................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

Notification of Cases...................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

When and Where...................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

Demographics...................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

Industry...................................................................................................................................................................................... 21

Occupation...................................................................................................................................................................................... 29

External Cause of Death...................................................................................................................................................................................... 34

SPECIAL TOPICS...................................................................................................................................................................................... 35

Agricultural Fatalities...................................................................................................................................................................................... 35

Motor Vehicle Crashes (MVCs)...................................................................................................................................................................................... 37

Homicides...................................................................................................................................................................................... 38

Women...................................................................................................................................................................................... 39

Out-of-State Residents...................................................................................................................................................................................... 39

Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)...................................................................................................................................................................................... 41

REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................................................................... 43

Appendix A – Case Report...................................................................................................................................................................................... 45

Appendix B – Report Request Form...................................................................................................................................................................................... 49

Appendix C – Presentation Evaluation...................................................................................................................................................................................... 53

Appendix D – Fatalities By County 1996-2000 (map)...................................................................................................................................................................................... 55

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

List of Tables

                                                                                                                                    Page

 

Table 1. Survey of Governor’s Safety & Health Conference FACE Presentation

Attendees                                                                                                                   13

Table 2. Initial sources of notification for the Year 2001                                                    14

Table 3. Fatality Rates for Counties with the Greatest Frequency of

Occupational Fatalities in 2001                                                                                 19

Table 4. Fatality Rates and Numbers for Counties Experiencing a Fatality in 2001         20

Table 5. Demographic Characteristics of All Kentucky Occupational Deaths, 2001        22

Table 6. Occupational Fatalities by Industry, 2001                                                 25

Table 7. Work-related Fatalities by Occupation in 2001                                                     33

Table 8. Fatal vs. Nonfatal Workplace Injuries by Gender in the U.S                               42

Table 9. Fatal vs. Nonfatal Workplace Injuries by Gender in Kentucky               43

Table 10. Demographics of Female Occupational Fatalities in Kentucky for

the Year 2001                                                                                                             44

Table 11. The Number of Female Fatalities by Industry and Occupation Division

in Kentucky for 2001                                                                                     45

Table 12. Length of Time (> 24 hours) Between Injury and Death in 2001                       46

Table 13. Total and Average YPLL by Industry Classification for 2001                48


Table 14. Future Lost Wages Due to Work-related Fatalities by Industry.                      49

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

List of Figures

                                                                                                                                                Page

Figure 1. Time of Initial notification of Occupational Fatality in 2001                                15

Figure 2. Kentucky Occupational Fatalities by Month of Death                                        15

Figure 3. Occupational Fatality Numbers by Day of the Week                                          17

Figure 4. Occupational Fatality Numbers by Time of Day                                      17

Figure 5. Number of Occupational Fatalities in Kentucky per Area

Development District (ADD)                                                                                    18

Figure 6. Fatalities by Industry for the Year 2001                                                   24

Figure 7. Occupational Fatality Rates in the Mining, Ag/Forest./Fish.,

TCPU, and Construction Industries                                                              26

Figure 8. Occupational Fatality Rates in the Retail/Wholesale Trade,

Services, Public Administration, and Manufacturing Industries                             26

Figure 9. Transp./Commun. & Public Utilities Occupational Fatalities- Year 2001           27

Figure 10. Construction Fatalities for the Year 2001                                                           27

Figure 11. Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing Fatalities for Year 2001                           28

Figure 12. Manufacturing Deaths in Year 2001                                                                   28

Figure 13. Services Industries Deaths in the Year 2001                                                     29

Figure 14. Public Administration Occupational Fatalities for the Year 2001                      29

Figure 15. Mining Industry Occupational Fatalities for the Year 2001                              30

Figure 16. Finance/Insurance/Real Estate Industry Fatalities for the Year 2001  30

Figure 17. Wholesale Trade Industry Occupational Deaths for the Year 2001                 31

Figure 18. Retail Trade Industry Occupational Fatalities for the Year 2001                     31

Figure 19. Fatalities by External Cause of Death                                                                32

Figure 20. Operators/Fabricators/Laborers Occupational Deaths in 2001                        35

Figure 21. Farming/Forestry/Fishing Occupational Deaths in 2001                                    36

Figure 22. Precision Products/Craft/Repair Occupational Deaths in 2001             36

Figure 23. Service Occupational Deaths in 2001                                                                 37

Figure 24. Military Occupational deaths in 2001                                                                 37

Figure 25.  Technical/Sales/Administrative Support Occupational Fatalities in 2001        38

Figure 26. Managerial/Professional Specialty Occupational Deaths in 2001                    38

Figure 27. Total Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in Kentucky, 1997-2001                 47


 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

During 2001, KY FACE staff identified and recorded 112 occupational fatalities.  The categories designated by NIOSH as eligible for field investigation during this period were youth fatalitiesworkers (<18 years old), highway work zone deathss, and machinery-related incidents. 

 

In addition to investigative and data management activities, the following are some of the notable accomplishments of the KY FACE Project during its eighth year:

 

·                    Kentucky’s occupational fatality rate is elevated (6 deaths/ 100,000 workers) compared to the U.S. occupational fatality rateFACE data requests increased 12% from the year. (4 deaths/ 100,000 workers).

 

·                    Although the total years of potential life lost (YPLL) has decreased in Kentucky since 1997, lost wages in those occupations with fatalities totaled $74.4 million in 2001.

 

·                    Male workers die as a result of motor vehicle collisions or falls, whereas female workers die due to motor vehicle collisions or by homicide.

 

·                    A new FACE brochure was developed and disseminated.

 

·                    A one page “flyer” was developed and distributed to 120 County Extension Agents promoting the use of Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) and seat belts on tractors. 

 

Oral presentations were made at the annual Coroner’s Conference in April of 2001 and the Governor’s Safety and Health Conference in May of 2001 and May of 2002. 

 

·                    A significant number of articles were published and include the following:

 

 

a)      Struttmann TW, Brandt VA, Morgan SE, Piercy  LRPiercy LR, Cole HP. (2001) Equipment dealers’ perceptions of a community based ROPS campaign. Journal of Rural Health 17(2):131-139.

b)      Struttmann TW, Scheerer A. (2001). Fatal injuries caused by logs rolling off trucks: Kentucky 1994-1998.  American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 39:203-208.

c)      Brandt VA, Struttmann TW, Cole HP, Piercy LR. (2001) Delivering health and safety education messages for part-time farmers through local businesses and employers. Journal of Agromedicine pp.23-30.

a)d)Morgan, SE Cole, HP, Struttman, T & Piercy, LR. (2001) Stories or Statistics? Farmers’ Attitudes Toward Messages in an Agricultural Safety Campaign. (submitt   ed)

Scheerer, A, Brandt, V. (2001) Interviews with Widows Following Fatal Farming Incidents. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 7(2):75-87.

 

 

 

 


 

PROGRESS TOWARD PROGRAM OBJECTIVES

 

Following are some of the goals that were set by KY FACE staff at the beginning of 2001, and, for each, a brief evaluation of progress made:

 

Objective 1) Continue working with the Labor Department’s Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), coroners, State Police, and other agencies to ensure that a minimum of occupational fatalities go unreported.

 

Frequent comparisons of findings with the Labor Department’s Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program indicate that KY FACE is missing no cases, and, in fact at times, reveals cases previously unknown to CFOI.  Also, frequent contact is made with county coroners to confirm or reject possible cases. In addition, contact has been made with the records section of the Kentucky State Police Headquarters to begin receiving electronic motor vehicle collision data quarterly, to confirm and identify new occupational motor vehicle fatalities occurring within the state of Kentucky and to facilitate more timely data analysis and generation of safety and prevention materials.

 

Objective 2) Complete First Reports and Supplements (when appropriate) on all occupational fatalities and transmit data to NIOSH in an accurate and timely fashion.

 

First reports and supplements, as well as data transfer to NIOSH, have been completed in an accurate and timely fashion.  NIOSH has developed new software using Microsoft Access to enter and transmit data.  The new software wais adequate but there weare problems associated with non-targeted case definitions. With the NIOSH database, up to 65% of cases weare defined as being caused by “other” means of death, therefore, vital variables necessary for data analysis weare missing or incomplete. We have been involved in the FACE coordination committee to discuss and resolve this and other issues. We will continue to utilize our database, Epi-Info for initial first report entry followed by a repeat entry into the NIOSH database until a decision is made whether to upgrade the NIOSH database or not.

It was decided during the last teleconference on May 29, 2002 that the use of the NIOSH database would be discontinued and that each state would maintain their own database. To facilitate the smooth transition into either the Epi Info or the Microsoft Access databases, which are currently used, user group meetings will be held at the FACE annual meeting in 2002. Also, a list will be compiled by NIOSH and distributed to all states that contains the core variables to code occupational fatalities in order to attain uniformity between states.

 

Objective 3) Complete at least 18 on-site investigations of occupational fatalities in designated categories during FY01.

 

Due to staff changes, position vacancies, and the nature of the occupational fatalities occurring in Kentucky during this fiscal year, only 45 cases were investigated in 2001so far with final draft reports prepared in 2002.  One case was machineryconstruction-related, involving the release of an excavator bucket from a quick connector coupler. The second case,case machinery-involved, was a result of of a construction related fall from scaffoldingbeing pinned by a piece of machinery against a pillar. The third case involved the death of a juvenile riding as a passenger, as a result of a tractor overturn while farming. The fourth case was a machinery-related crushing incident. The fifth case occurred when a construction worker was killed after a crane overturned on him. A fourth case resulted in the death of a juvenile while driving a golf cart. All five cases were deemed worthy of investigation due to the unique circumstances involved and the future prevention materials that can be generated from the data collected for each case investigation. A new investigator, Medearis Robertson, was hired in May 2002 so we anticipate that the number of case investigations will increase to the projected

 

 number for the next fiscal year.

 

Objective 4) Continue to develop and expand dissemination methods to communicate FACE results, program activities, goals, and priorities.

 

a) a) FACE staff (and others) responded to 47 requests for FACE data for the fiscal year 2001-2002, which is approximately the same as in 2000-20001slightly more than the previous year at this time (42), indicating continued and increasing awareness of the existence of KY FACE and interest in the project’s results.

b) b) Tim Struttmann taught an Agriculture Safety class and Occupational Medicine 602 course geared towards medical residents and MPH students at the University of Kentucky that relied heavily on KY FACE data acquired over the years. 

c) c) The Community Partners for Healthy Farming Project has continued to use KY FACE data in the development of agricultural safety information, particularly messages designed to increase the number of farmers retrofitting their tractors with rollover protective structures.

d) Tim Struttmann discussed the KY FACE Project and Mike Pope presented case history/investigation information on 00KY096 to a class of University of KY MPH students and medical residents on 1-16-01.

e) A new FACE brochure was developed and sent to all 120 County Coroners offices along with a FACE the Facts sheets from 2000 and 20011999 data. Land laminated guideline sheets for determining if a death was work related were also developed..

f) A one page “flyer” was developed and distributed to all 120 County Extension Agents soliciting their help in promoting the retrofit and/or use of Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) and seat belts on tractors.  The same “flyer” was also modified to target the end user and was distributed at a farm safety day.

g) A HazAlert publication addressing measures to prevent hyperthermia during the summer was disseminated to the Bricklayers & Allied Crafts Local Union, the Carpenter’s Local Union, the Teamsters Local Union, the Lexington Migrant Network Coalition and Cooperative Extension offices.

 

Objective 5) Submit abstracts to professional meetings and publish results.

 

Oral presentations were made at the annual Coroner’s Conference in April of 2001 and the Governor’s Safety and Health Conference in May of 2001 and May 2002. 

 

Objective 6) Write article based on occupational fatality data in Kentucky to be submitted to peer-reviewed journal (CFOI vs. FACE analysis, data linkage project).

 

This specific objective was not met but has been carried over for the next fiscal year with modifications (FACE and FARS data linkage) andwith the appointment of a research assistant dedicated to this project who commenced work in May 2002.

 

Other articles related to FACE data were written/published (or are in press) and are as follows:

 

·        Struttmann TW, Brandt VA, Morgan SE, Piercy LR, Cole HP. (2001) Equipment dealers’ perceptions of a community based ROPS campaign. Journal of Rural Health 17(2):131-139.

 

 

Other articles related to FACE data were written/published (or are in press) and are as follows:

Struttmann TW, Brandt VA, Morgan SE, Piercy LR, Cole HP. (2001) Equipment dealers’ perceptions of a community based ROPS campaign. Journal of Rural Health 17(2):131-139.

·        Struttmann TW, Scheerer A. (2001). Fatal injuries caused by logs rolling off trucks: Kentucky 1994-1998.  American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 39:203-208.

·        8.

·        BBrandt VA, Struttmann TW, Cole HP, Piercy LR. (2001) Delivering health and safety

 

education messages for part-time farmers through local businesses and employers. Journal of

Agromedicine pp.23-30.

·        Scheerer, A, Struttman, TW. (2002) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Kentucky. Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association (in press)

·        StruttmanStruttmann, TW, Reed, DK (2002) Injuries to Tobacco Farmers in Kentucky. Southern Medical Journal (in press)

·        Morgan, SE Cole, HP, StruttmanStruttmann, T & Piercy, LR. (2001) Stories or Statistics? Farmers’ Attitudes Toward Messages in an Agricultural Safety Campaign. (submitted)

·        Reed, DK, StruttmanStruttmann, TW (2002) Fatal Incidents Involving Farm Equipment on Public Roadways. (in preparation)

·        StruttmanStruttmann, T, Perkins, D, Huitink, G (2002) Summary of Deaths and Injuries in Arkansas Agricultural. (in preparation)

 

Objective 7) Hire and train a new Field Investigator.

 

We have hired a FACE Field Investigator in May 2002. She is receiving training presently and will begin new case investigations as NIOSH priority incidents occur. Both Terry Bunn and the new Field Investigator, Medearis Robertson will attend NIOSH investigator training in Morgantown when offered.

 

Objective 8) Finish qualitative analysis of survivors’ interviews and publish data.

 

This has been completed and an article has been written and published:

C       Scheerer, A, Brandt, V. (2001) Interviews with Widows Following Fatal Farming Incidents. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 7(2):75-87.

 

SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM

 

During state fiscal year 2001-2002, the KY FACE Project maintained and expanded its network of notification sources and relationships formed in its prior years of operation.  The following is a list of currently active sources:

 

C       County coroners and deputy coroners

C       Kentucky Department of Labor

C       Kentucky Labor Cabinet, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)

C       Community Partners for Healthy Farming (CPHF) Project

C       State Vital Statistics Registrar

C       Emergency Medical Services offices

C       Southeast Center for Agricultural Health and Injury Prevention (SCAHIP)

C       Kentucky State Police, Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS)

C       County Cooperative Extension offices

C       Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)

C       Print and electronic media news reports

CKentucky State Police, Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS)

County Cooperative Extension offices

 

Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)

 

Print and electronic media news reports

 

 

 

 

 

 

INVESTIGATION PROGRAM

 

The KY FACE Project continueds to conduct on-site investigations of selected occupational fatalities during the fiscal year 2001-2002 which feall into the NIOSH-designated categories of machinery related incidents, highway work zones and youth workers (<18 years).

 

Investigation case reports for the following lowing cases were initiated in 2001 and completed in 2002. Investigations Yfor the year 2001 investigations included (check out) a3 machinery-related incidents, a construction-related fall, and 2a youth incidents. The first youth incident involved the death ofing a person riding as a passenger on a tractor performing farmwork (see Appendix A.) and involved a tractor overturn. The second youth death occurred when a golf course employee was killed after being thrown from a golf cart. Summaries of these incidents are as follows:

 

·        A 16-year-old female was killed after the tractor on which she was riding as a passenger overturned. She was a high school student; farmed on evenings and weekends. The tractor was being driven by a 20-year-old friend while baling hay on a farm at dusk. The driver and the  victimthe victim had been baling hay all day, and both were experienced farmers. The victim was seated on the fender to the left of the driver. The tractor was a 1969 tricycle-tired3-point John Deere, which was well maintained but was not equipped with a Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS) or a seatbelt. The tires were appropriately fluid filled, however the two tires were adjusted so that they were touching. The driver was reversing the tractor down a slight slope in an open field in order to stab a bale of hay with an attached  hydraulic (?) hayfork. The right rear wheel ran over the hay bale cuasingcausing the tractor to overturn side-ways on top of the victim and the driver. The driver was pushed clear by one of the tractor’s rotating wheels. The victim was pinned underneath the tractor’s driver seat and died of compression asphyxiation.

 

·A 48-year-old maintenance technician ( the victim) was killed when he was trapped between a touret punch press table and a pole. His shift started at 6 am and he had began work at approximately 6:15 am. The incident occurred approximately 15 minutes after initiation of work. He working with the machine

 

·        A 44-year-old construction worker (victim) was killed when a 36-inch-wide bucket weighing more than 1000 pounds, detached from its quick release coupler and fell from an excavator, landing on him as he was working in a trench.  The victim and another worker had been in the trench preparing it for a pre-formed concrete manhole that they were about to install.  Their supervisor (the excavator operator) sat and waited in the excavator, with the engine running, and the bucket raised a few feet above ground level so that it would be out of the way.  The second man in the trench had just turned away from the victim when he heard a “click” and turned back to see the bucket fall.  He attempted to move the bucket, but could not.  He and the excavator operator used the excavator and a chain to remove the bucket and then called for help.  The victim was pronounced dead at the scene upon arrival of emergency medical workers.

 

·        A fifteen-year-old golf course worker (the victim) was killed when the utility golf cart he was operating overturned.  The victim was employed by the golf club on which he and his family resided and had driven the utility golf cart to his home, located at the top of a hill, to change clothes.  Before leaving work for his residence, he contacted a friend who then came to his house on a regular course golf cart (not a utility cart).  The victim changed clothes and the victim and his friend left the victim’s home, each driving their respective carts and via public and golf course roadways, traveled downhill towards the

 

 

clubhouse. As they descended the hill, they were reportedly racing when the victim lost control of his cart; it left the roadway and struck a pile of dirt.  The vehicle became airborne over a small creek, rotated in the air, and the victim landed on his head on the opposite side of the creek.  Emergency medical services (EMS) was contacted.  A physician on the course at the time arrived at the scene and assisted the EMS team. Efforts to revive the victim failed and he was pronounced dead in the ambulance, while still on the scene.

 

·        A 62 year-old male brick mason (victim) died after he fell approximately 55 feet through masonry scaffolding.  He worked for a masonry subcontracting company that was contracted through another construction company to do the masonry work on a new building.  The victim was performing ongoing work laying brick at the construction site.  At approximately 7:15 AM the victim entered the building he was bricking and ascended to the 4th floor where he reached his workstation.  He stepped out of an opening from the building onto the scaffolding outside.  As he did so, he stepped over two mason board’s (20 inches combined width) which were closest to the building and onto the first one of three materials board’s (10 inches wide) located in the middle of the scaffolding.  The board he stepped onto broke and he fell 55 feet.  He died approximately one hour later at a nearby hospital of multiple blunt force injuries.

 


 

 

PREVENTION/INTERVENTION ACTIVITIES

 

Upon completion of each investigation report (example, Appendix A) A), copies are provided to the employer, if applicable, to the coroner involved, and to any witnesses or others who assisted with the investigation.  These reports are also available to others (e.g., presentation audiences) via a request form or the KIPRC website.  A sample form is included as Appendix B.

 

FACE Hazard Alerts, newsletters and other NIOSH handouts were distributed at several statewide  conferencesstatewide conferences and meetings,  (reaching many target audiences, including safety and health professionals, coroners, emergency medical service and laboratory personnel, industrial workers and the agricultural community).  Moreover, newsletters and Hazard Alerts were circulated in the Kentucky Lt. Governor’s office, the Kentucky Department for Public Health, the Kentucky Labor Ccabinet and the Central Laboratory Facility. In addition, prevention materials were periodically distributed to the state’s 120 county extension agents, postage free, through the UK Department of Agriculture, which distributes packets weekly to all agents. To reach specific target populations, the distribution of Hazard Alerts included the Bricklayers Local Union, the Carpenter’s Local Union, the Teamsters Local Union, the Migrant Network Coalition, and Cooperative Extension agents.

 

FACE staff members made oral presentations to the State Coroners' Association on April 27, 2001 and at the Governor’s Safety and Health Conference held in May 2001 and May 8-10, 2002. Jane McCammon, MS, Director of the Denver Field office for at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was the, invited speaker of the KY FACE program and spoke to the State Coroners’ Association in May 2001. She addressed the issue of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the need for carboxyhemoglobin levels as a measure for accurate determination of CO exposure as the cause of death in occupational fatalities. At the Governor’s Safety & Health conference (2002), the presentation included two information delivery formats. First, a slide presentation outlined  FACEoutlined FACE program objectives and goals and provided data on demographics, occupations and industries related to KY occupational fatalities. SecondAfterward, the audience was divided into three separate groups and three case investigation scenarios were presented. The groups were prompted to ask questions about their individual cases, then to consider prevention strategies and interventions that may prevent that specific type of occupational fatality from occurring in the future. An evaluation of thise type of presentation format revealed that  95% of the attendees thought that the presentation was easy to understand and 95% of those evaluated believed they better understood the occupational fatality problem in Kentucky.  Eighty-two percent82% of the conference participants were unaware of the FACE program before the presentation compared withto 87% who were unaware in 2000. This indicates an increased awareness of the FACE program over the past years. With the presentation format utilized, 95% of the attendees thought that the presentation was easy to understand and 95% of those evaluated believed they better understood the occupational fatality problem in Kentucky.  Eighty-six percent of conference participants thought the presentation was valuable to their work and 80% thought the presentation prompted them to change safety practices at their worksite (compared to 60% surveyed in 2000). Therefore, the prevention strategies and data provided by the FACE program are of considerable utility in the workplace. TThese presentations also served to expand our network of notification sources (27% requested more dissemination information) and also increased the number of requests for FACE data. The table 1 below compares survey information from the years 20002 and 20020.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Survey of Governor’s Safety & Health Conference FACE Ppresentation Aattendees1.

 

Year

 

 

Valuable to my work?

 

Better understand the occupation. fatality problem?

 

Easy to understand?

 

 Prompted me to change work practices?

 

Aware of FACE before present.?

 

I would like more information.

2000

64%

95%

90%

60%

87%

n/a

2002

86%

95%

95%

80%

82%

27%

 

1 Numbers represent the percentage of those surveyed (n=33 for year 2000, n=22 for year 2002) that either strongly agreed or agreed with the survey question asked.

 

           

KY FACE also made an oral presentation in September 2001 at the annual FACE meeting in Morgantown, WV, about the Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS) campaign that was done in KY.  “Collaborations with Academic Partners to Develop and Disseminate FACE-Based Interventions. With the collaboration of the FACE program and academics, FACE findings were translated into community based interventions and the publication of peer-reviewed articles. Community- based interventions included posters, exercises, meetings and education classes. Furthermore, a logging video was created with the help of the UK Dept. of Forestry.  With the cooperation of the Spanish department, the rapid translation and posting of FACE fact sheets, alerts, and case reports in Spanish were accomplished. A collaborative grant proposal was written with the Communication Dept., which was unfunded, but served to further advance our collaborations with that department. The collaboration of the FACE program with a number of departments on the University of Kentucky campus resulted in the review and publication of a number of scientific articles.At the time of the presentation the prevention materials that were developed, field tested, and revised were available in notebook form.  They have since been made available on CD.  The primary focus is retrofitting ROPS and safe tractor operation.  These are ‘ready to use’ materials and include PSAs, exercises, simulations, motor vehicle crash prevention materials, and others.  They were designed to be used by local community groups, including health educators and injury prevention coordinators.  The CD contains all materials in both Microsoft Word format and PDF format.  Copies of the CD are available at no cost by contacting KIPRC at (859) 257-4955, or mpope2@pop.uky.edu.

 

The educational module developed and initiated in 1995 for coroners and deputy coroners was continued.  This is an on-going project related to accurate completion of death certificates with respect to work-relatedness.

 

 


 

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

 

Kentucky FACE identified 1124 fatal occupational injuries during 20010.  The following section provides a descriptive analysis of the KY FACE data for that year.

 

Notification of Cases

 

Vital Statistics and newspapersNewspapers comprised the majority of were the most common source of initial notification sources (Table 21).  The Kentucky State Police Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS), formerly a primary notification source, is no longer able to provide FACE with direct paper FARS reports under a new Federal ruling which states that no information be coded and distributed containing personal identifiers such as names, addresses, or specific crash locations. FACE will begin receiving motor vehicle collision reports, without personal identifiers, from the Kentucky State Police quarterly. Those fatalities determined to be work related can then be selected for analysis.

 

FACE was informed of 44 42 percent of occupational fatalitythe cases within two days (Figure 1), compared to 4458 percent in 20001999.  After a case was identified, other sources were used to gather additional details about the fatal incident, including death certificates, Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) reports, and autopsy and toxicology reports. Interviews with ccoroners, employers, law enforcement officers, Mining Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) reports, autopsy and toxicology reports, and interviews with witnesses and family members were completed as well during investigations. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 21.  Initial Sources of Notification for the Year 2001.

 

 

                                      Source                                               Percent of Cases

 

 

                        Lexington Herald Leader newspaperNewspapers                         2249%

                        Louisville Courier Journal newspaperVital Statistics                         1224%

                        Vital StatisticsKY State Police Fatal Accident

                             Reporting System (FARS)                             365%

  Coroners  4%

                        CFOIKentucky Department of Labor                                                                       1314%

  Community Partners for Healthy Farming  1%

  Medical Examiner  1%

  MSHA  1%

                        OtherNIOSH                                                                         21%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1. Time of Initial Notification of Occupational Fatality in 2001.

 

 

When and Where

 

Figure 2 shows the number of fatalities that occurred each month during the year.  While it had the fewest in 1999, Tthe peak months for fatalities in 20010 were October and November with 14 fatalities each followed by May with 12 fatalitiesas February (n=15). In October, five of the incidents involved farmers- 3 were killed in tractor rollovers, a bull attacked 1, and 1 was accidentally shot with a firearm. Only 2 of the 14 fatalities for November were farm-related. The spike in October could be explained by the drier season. More farmwork, such as hay baling and field preparation, is accomplished in the fall. Four of the fatalities in November included homicides- two stemmed from a single incident when two police officers were serving a misdemeanor warrant, one was a shooting of a grocery clerk and the last incident involved the shooting of a former county clerk by the victim’s former employer.      This is at least partially due to two multiple fatality incidents – one that killed four people (plane crash) and one

 

 


Figure 2. Kentucky Occupational Fatalities by Month of Death.

 

 


that killed two (explosion).  Following closely behind February were September and October (n=14).  TDecember had the fewest number of occupational fatalities during 20010 (n=45) were recorded in December. This may be partially due to the fact that many industries shut down over the holidays; therefore, there are fewer workdays.

 

The days of the week occupational fatalities occurred is shown in Figure 3. Surprisingly, Mondays (n= 15) and/or Fridays (n= 13) did not comprise the most frequent days of the week for when the majority of deaths occurred. Most of the occupational fatalities occurred either on a Tuesday (n= 27) or Wednesday (n= 21).

 

When the time of death was examined, it was determined that the majority of deaths happened during typical work hours between 6am and 6pm (Figure 4). The highest number of occupational fatalities (n= 32) occurred between 10am and 2pm. On both sides of that timeframe, the number of worker deaths followed closely with 25 deaths recorded between 6am and 10am and 29 deaths between 2pm and 6pm. Surprisingly, quite a few occupational fatalities were also observed (n= 16) between 6pm and midnight. 

 


 

Figure 3. Occupational Fatality Numbers by Day of Week.

 

 

 

Figure 4. Occupational Fatality Numbers by Time of Day.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 53 shows a map of Kentucky with the number of work-related fatalities that occurred in each Area Development District (ADD).  ADD’s are defined as partnerships of local governments, which provide for planned growth.  The KIPDABluegrass District (the Area Development District that includes the metropolitan Louisville areaLexington-Fayette County) recordedhad the most fatalities with 251, followed closely by the Bluegrass ADDKIDPA (whichthe district that includes Lexington-Fayetteouisville – Jefferson County) with 220, and Big Sandy with 12.. The lowest number of occupational fatalities was recorded in the FIVCO district (n= 1), which encompasses the city of Ashland.

 

 

Figure 53.  Number of Occupational Fatalities in Kentucky

per Area Development District  

(ADD)

(ADD)


 


HalfSixty-three of Kentucky’s 120 counties had at least one occupational fatality during 2000. Jefferson County had the most fatalities with 20sixteen, followed by FayettePike Ccounty with 7seven, Christian and Pulaski counties with five each, and FloydHarrison, PikeKenton and PerryMartin counties with four each. Jessamine, Lincoln, and Daviess counties each recorded 3 occupational fatalities. Table 32 shows the fatality rate per 100,000 workers for each of these eightseven counties using employment estimates.  Floyd and Perry counties had very high fatality rates compared to Jefferson and Fayette counties and these rates are a product of the low number of employed workers in both counties. It is interesting to note that while Jefferson County had four times as many fatalities as Martin County, the rate per 100,000 workers in Martin was almost thirty-six times that of Jefferson.  This is due to the relatively high number of employed persons in Jefferson County (368,324) as compared to Martin (2,719).  The number of employed persons was 12,512 for Floyd and 10, 674 for Perry County, whereas, the number of employed workers for Jefferson and Fayette counties were 372,387 and 143,992, respectively. A map of Kentucky’s fatalities by county for the five-year period 1996-2000 can be found in appendix D.

 

Table 3. Fatality Rates for Counties with the Greatest Frequency of Occupational Fatalities in 2001.

 

County

Fatalities

Employment Numbers*

Rate per 100,000 Workers

Jefferson

20

372,387

5

Fayette

7

143,992

5

Floyd

4

12,512

32

Pike

4

25,114

16

Perry

4

10,674

37

Jessamine

3

21,101

14

Lincoln

3

11,174

27

Daviess

3

48,121

6

Total KY

112

1,900,116

6

 

*County employment estimates are from the 2001 Kentucky Deskbook of Economic Statistics. Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development, Division of Research; Frankfort, KY; 2000.

 

 

Fatality numbers and occupational fatality rates were calculated for all counties experiencing a fatality in 2001 and are listed in Table 4.  Forty-five of Kentuckys 120 counties had fatality rates that exceeded the state average of six per 100,000 workers.  Fatality rates were significantly higher than the nation’s average in several counties, including Nicholas and Lee (41), and Russell and Perry (37) counties. The high fatality rates are a reflection of the smaller number of workers within those counties. With the relatively low worker populations, there are notably high numbers of fatalities.

 

 

 

Table 2.  Fatality Rates for Counties with the Greatest Frequency of Occupational Fatalities During 2000

 

  County  Fatalities  Rate per 100,000 workers*

 

  Jefferson  16  4

  Pike  7  27

  Christian  5  18

  Pulaski  5  20

  Harrison  4  55

  Kenton  4  5

  Martin  4  147

 

  Total KY  124  7

 

*County employment estimates from the 2000 Kentucky Deskbook of Economic Statistics, Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development, Division of Research; Frankfort, KY; 2000.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 4. Fatality Rates* and Numbers for Counties Experiencing a Fatality in 2001.

 

 

 


County         Fatality      

                     Rate           (#)           

 

County                 Fatality

                             Rate           (#)

 

County                 Fatality

                             Rate              (#)

Nicholas      41.14   (1)

Lee              41.08   (1)

Russell        37.48   (2)

Perry           37.47   (4)

Trimble       36.62   (1)

Fulton         32.29   (1)

Floyd          31.97   (4)

Webster           19.89     (1)

Knott               18.73     (1)

Bath                 17.76     (1)

Rockcastle       16.96     (1)

Washington     16.87     (1)

Grayson           16.69     (2)

Fleming           16.39     (1)

Logan               7.84        (1)

Woodford         7.39        (1)

Whitley             7.31       (1)

Christian           7.20        (2)

Marshall            7.14       (1)

Greenup            6.38       (1)

Daviess              6.23      (3)

Lyon           31.05   (1)

Jackson       27.58   (2)

Lewis          27.37   (1)

Bracken       27.11   (1)

Lincoln       26.85   (3)

Green          25.88   (1)

Breathitt      25.64   (1)

Pike                 15.93     (4)

Jessamine        14.22     (3)

Harrison          14.10     (1)

Garrard            12.97     (1)

Graves             11.96     (2)

Simpson          11.85     (1)

Barren             11.29     (2)

Calloway           5.82       (1)

Hardin               5.64       (2)

Madison            5.52       (2)

Hopkins             5.49      (1)

Jefferson            5.37     (20)

Fayette               4.86     (7)

Laurel                4.48     (1)

Mason         24.81   (2)

McLean       24.12   (1)

Owen          23.55    (1)

Morgan       21.97    (1)

Edmonson   20.54   (1)

Carroll         19.90   (1)

Shelby             11.08     (2)

Scott                11.03     (2)

Ohio                11.00     (1)

Marion              9.43     (1)

Mercer              9.20     (1)

Muhlenberg      8.53     (1)

Campbell           4.46     (2)

Oldham              3.94     (1)

McCracken        3.06     (1)

Bullitt                2.95     (1)

Boone                2.19     (1)

Kenton               1.27     (1)

*Rates were calculated per 100,000 workers using county employment estimates from the 2001 Kentucky Deskbook of Economic Statistics, Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development, Division of Research, KY; 2001.

Fatality rates were calculated for all counties experiencing a fatality in 2000 and are listed in Table 3.  Forty-six of Kentucky's counties had fatality rates that exceeded the state average of seven per 100,000 workers.  Fatality rates were much higher than Kentucky's average in several counties, including Martin (147), Harrison (55), Bracken (51), and Morgan (43) counties.  The relatively low number of workers in each of these counties (Martin – 2,719, Harrison – 7,250, Bracken – 3,897, and Morgan – 4,692) led to the high fatality rates, while, on the other hand, Jefferson County, with four to eight times the number of fatalities, only had a fatality rate of four due to its massive workforce (368,324 employed persons).

 


 


Table 3. Fatality Rates* for Counties Experiencing a Fatality in 2000

 

 

County

 

Fatality Rate

 

 

County

 

Fatality Rate

 

 

County

 

Fatality Rate

 

Martin

147

 

Russell

19

 

Lincoln

9

 

Harrison

55

 

Christian

18

 

Laurel

9

 

Bracken

51

 

Estill

18

 

Muhlenberg

9

 

Morgan

43

 

Trigg

17

 

Floyd

8

 

Webster

39

 

Fleming

17

 

Woodford

7

 

Cumberland

37

 

Rockastle

17

 

Warren

6

 

Harlan

37

 

McCreary

17

 

Clark

6

 

Wolfe

33

 

Jessamine

14

 

Graves

6

 

Lyon

31

 

Marshall

14

 

Scott

6

 

Adair

29

 

Breckinridge

14

 

Shelby

6

 

Letcher

27

 

Henry

14

 

Barren

6

 

Pike

27

 

Henderson

13

 

Kenton

5

 

Hancock

26

 

Greenup

13

 

Boone

5

 

Boyle

26

 

Simpson

12

 

Jefferson

4

 

McLean

22

 

Franklin

12

 

Daviess

4

 

Whitley

22

 

Mason

12

 

Oldham

4

 

Edmonson

21

 

Bell

11

 

McCracken

3

 

Monroe

20

 

Grant

10

 

Bullitt

3

 

Pulaski

20

 

Anderson

10

 

Hardin

3

 

Lawrence

20

 

Bourbon

10

 

Campbell

2

 

Todd

19

 

Mercer

9

 

Fayette

1

 



 

* Rates were calculated per 100,000 workers using county employment estimates from the 2000 Kentucky Deskbook of Economic Statistics, Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development, Division of Research; Frankfort, KY; 2000.

 

 

Demographics

 

Demographic characteristics of allthe workers fatally injured on the job are shown in Table 54.  Those killed on the job in 2000 were primarily white (83%; 7% were unknown) and male (97%). Ages ranged from 15 through 93 (one age was unknown), with a median of 44.  Most (66%) were married, and at least half had a high school education or beyond (50% of known; there were 29% unknown education levels).  During 1999, farmers accounted for 75 percent of those aged 60 and over (n=12), but for 2000, they accounted for only forty percent of these fatalities (n=8).  The oldest, at 93 years old, was, however, a farmer.  While there were four occupational fatalities in the less than 20 age group, only one fell into the newly designated NIOSH target area of youth (<18 years old).Ninety percent of occupational workers killed were male, and the workers were primarily white (85%). The number of female deaths increased significantly from the year 2000. Whereas there were only 4 females deaths in 2000, there were 11 female deaths in 2001. Six percent of worker deaths were black. The age of workers killed ranged from 16 to 97 years. The youngest was a 16-year-old farmer killed in a tractor overturn and the oldest worker killed was a 97-year-old farmer killed when an automobile struck him as he was walking across the road to check his cattle. The median age at death was 46 years of age. Sixty percent of those killed were married, while 13% and 12%, respectively, were either unmarried or divorced.  Almost half (45%) were high school graduates and 5% had a college degree. Eighteen percent of workers killed had less than a high school education. The majority of deaths, as expected, involved people born in the United States, although two deaths involved workers born in Germany, one was born in Mexico and one was born in Bosnia. Almost all of the decedents spoke English (90%). One spoke Spanish as the primary language, one spoke Bosnian and one spoke German.

 

When in-state vs. out-of-state resident deaths were examined, fourteen (13%) of the 112 fatal incidents involved residents of 6 other states who died while working in Kentucky. The out-of-state residents were from Indiana (n= 7), Alabama (n= 2), Ohio (n= 2), Missouri (n= 1), South Carolina (n= 1), and West Virginia (n= 1). None of the out-of-sate resident fatalities involved females. There was no individual industry with a disproportionate number of deaths for out-of-state residents in 2001. The greatest number of out-of-state residents worked in both the Construction and Transportation industry divisions (n=4 for each). There were 2 deaths each in the Manufacturing and Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing industries. In the year 2000, the majority of deaths occurred in the Transportation industry.  The most common occupation for out-of-state deaths was that of an operator/fabricator/laborer (n= 8, 57%). The most frequent cause of death involved motor vehicles (43%), either  motor vehicle crashes or being struck by a motor vehicle.


 

Table 54.  Demographic Characteristics of All Kentucky Occupational Deaths, 20010

 

 

Characteristic                                       Number                        Percent

 

 

Total Fatalities                                         11224                              100

Sex

            Male                                           10120                                907

            Female                                          114                                103

Race

            White                                            95103                                853

            Black                                              711                                  69

            Other                                              11                                  1

            Unknown                                        89                                  7

American Indian/Alaska Native        1                                 1

Age

            <20                                                 4                                  43

            20 - 29                                         182                                1610

            30 - 39                                         2033                                1827

            40 - 49                                         247                                2122

            50 - 59                                         217                                1922

            60 - 69                                         161                                149

            70 - 79                                           45                                  44

            80-89                                              23                                  22

            >980>                                                 31                                  3<1

Marital Status                                                Unknown                                                1                                                <1

Marital Status

            Never married                               1515                                1312

            Married                                         6782                                6066

            Divorced                                       1318                                1215

            Widowed                                        22                                  2<1

            Unknown                                      157                                136

Education

            Less than high school                     2026                                1821

            High school graduate                     5041                                4533

            Some college                                 1513                                1311

            College graduate                              68                                  56

                                    Unknown                                      2136                                19

Country of Origin

            United States                               101                                90

            Mexico                                            1                                  129

                                    Bosnia                                             1                                  1

                                    Germany                                         2                                  2

                                    Unknown                                        7                                  6

Primary Language

            English                                         101                                90

            Spanish                                           1                                  1

            Other                                              2                                  2

            Unknown                                        8                                  7

 


 

 

Industry

 

Table 65 and Figures 6-84 show the number of workers killed in each industry division (as classified by the Standard Industrial Classification Manual), as well as a comparison of state and national occupational fatality rates.  TheThis year, the division of Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing  industryTransportation/Communication/Public Utilities realized the majority made up the largest portion (19%, n=24) of work-related deaths in Kentucky (n= 26, 23%) and. the occupational fatality rate for this industry remains more than double the US fatality rate (51 deaths per 100,000 workers in Kentucky vs. 21 deaths per 100,000 workers nationwide).  Manyost (16) of these fatalities, as one might expect, were Agricultural machinemotor vehicle- related (seven were due to tractor rollovers with tractors unequipped with a Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS)).  The fatality rate for this industry is high because employment numbers for farmers include only full-time farmers, not those who farm part-time as is the case in Kentucky. Hence, the number of those working in the agriculture industry is underestimated, and therefore, the fatality rate for this division is inflated.

 

The next highest percentage (2117%, n=241) of fatalities occurred in the  Transportation/-Communication/Public Utilities Construction (TCPU) industry, which again is pushing Kentucky’s 2000 fatality rate for Construction 30 percent higher than the U.S. rate (19 compared to 12). Motor vehicle collisions, as expected, were the leading cause of worker deaths in the transportation industry.

 

The KY Construction industry saw 19 deaths (fatality rate of 16) in 2001, which is 23% above the nationalrate was the same as the U.S. rate in 1999. fatality rate. The majority of construction fatalities were caused by falls. This past summer, two deaths in the construction industry occurred as a result of heat exposure and resultant hyperthermia due to the extreme heat and high humidity conditions at the time. One death was a result of suffocation when the worker became trapped in a ditch collapse.

 

There was another huge increase for 2001 in tThe KY mMining fatality rate saw a huge increase for 2000, making it more than twiceo times that of the U.S rate.  The mining industry The other significant change worth noting is that the Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing industry, which is usually the leading KY industry for occupational fatalities, is third for 2000, with 17 (down from 21 last year).  While these fatalities ranked third in number, the Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing industry’s fatality rate in KY was still the second highest (39/100,000 workers).  It should be noted, however, that the fatality rate for this industry division is somewhat artificially inflated because employment estimates for farmers include only those who farm full-time.  Since many of Kentucky’s farmers have other jobs and farm only part-time, the number of those working in the agriculture industry is underestimated, and therefore, inflates the fatality rate for this division.

 

wasKentucky’s the most dangerous industry in which to be employed in during 2001, as well as in the year 20000 was the mining industry.  Ten Mining’s 14 fatalities shot its fatality rate up to 55/100,000 workers – more than twice that of the U.S. rate for this industrymining fatalities were recorded this past year, which is down from the 14 recorded the previous year, but the fatality rate increased by 10 between 2001 and 2000. The reason the occupational fatality rate increased in 2001 is unclear but fewer people were employed in the Kentucky mining industry (15,500 for 2000; 17,211 in 1999) as referenced by the U.S. DOE-EIA; Coal Industry Annual, 1999-2000, Coal Production, 1979-1992.

 

Table 65 includes the percentage of workers employed in each industry division for comparison withison with the percentage of occupational fatalities within the given industry in each division.  This comparison again illustrates the high risk of working in the mining industry, as this division is comprised of less than two percent of the workers in Kentucky, yet accounts for eleven percent of the occupational fatalitieThe highest percentage of employed persons is in the Services industry, followed by the Retail/Wholesale Trade industry and the Manufacturing industry. All three of those industries had low fatality numbers and rates, which makes them the safest industries to work in. In contrast, less than 1% of people are employed by the mining industrys.

 and less than 3% in the agricultural industry but their fatality numbers and occupational fatality rates are high, which makes both of those industries more dangerous to work in.

 

 

The cause of death for each industrial classification are given in figures 9-18. As expected, the majority of Transportation as well as Mining and Services industry deaths were due to motor vehicle collisions. Ag machines and general machinery caused the greater number

 

of Agricultural and Manufacturing industry fatalities, respectively. Falls constituted the majority of Construction industry deaths. Homicides were the major cause of death in three industries in 2001. There were 3 homicides in the Public Administration industry, 1 homicide in the Finance/Insurance/Real Estate industry and 2 homicides in the Retail Trade industry. One suicide was recorded in the Wholesale Trade industry. Suicides are included in our database if it is determined that the suicide happened on work premises while the decedent was at work.    

 

When you compare the fatality rates between 2000 and 2001, it is clear that more intervention and prevention measures need to be undertaken in order to reduce the overall high fatality rates in Kentucky. Areas of concentration and concern include the Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing industry, the TCPU industry, the Construction industry and the Mining industry. As well, the factors that contributed to motor vehicle collision, machinery (Ag and other) and homicide related deaths need to be examined more thoroughly.


 

Number of Fatalities

 

Finance/ Ins./ Real Estate

 

Retail/ Wholesale Trade

 

Public Admin.

 

Services

 

Manufacturing

 

Mining

 

Construction

 

TCPU

 

Ag/ Forest./ Fish.

 

Figure 6. Fatalities By Industry For The Year 2001.

 


Table 65.  Occupational Fatalities by Industry, 20010 (Rates calculated per 100,000 workersa)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


  Number of  Percent of  2000  1999  1998 

Industryb  Fatalities (%)  Employmentc  KY Rate  KY Rate  KY Rate  US Rated

 

TCPU*  24 (19)  6.3  21  20  20  13

 

Construction  21 (17)  6.3  18  14  18  14

 

Ag/Forest/Fishing  17 (14)  2.4  39  50  54  23

 

Manufacturing  16 (13)  16.7  5  6  5  4

 

Services  15 (12)  21.7  4  2  2  2

 

Mining  14 (11)  1.4  55  38  34  25

 

Retail/Whse Trade  7 (6)  20.7  2  2  3  3

 

Public Administration  6 (5)  13.7  2  6  2  3

 

Finance/Ins/Real Estate  4 (3)  4.6  5  1  0  1

 

Totals  124 (100)  93.8  7  7  6  5

 

 

 

 

a Percent distribution of employed persons obtained from 1) 2000 from Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1998 (Bulletin 2524). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; November 1999; 2) 1999 from Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1997 (Bulletin 2515). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; June 1999; 3) 1998 from Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1996 (Bulletin 2498). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; April 1998.1) 2001 from Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1999 (Bulletin 2537). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; updated August 2001; 2) U.S. DOE-EIA; Coal Industry Annual, 1993-2000; 3) Kentucky FACE Project Annual Report 2000. Kentucky Injury Prevention and Research Center, 333 Waller Ave., Suite 202, Lexington, KY 40504-2915.

 

bOffice of Management and Budget.  Standard Industrial Classification Manual. 1987. Springfield VA: National Technical Information Service. (NTIS No. PB 87-100012)

 

cThe industries listed do not equal 100 percent of employed persons because of rounding and because they do not include private household workers, and self-employed and unpaid family workers which make up the remainder of employed persons (6 percent).

 

d Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary. US Dept. of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries in 2000Fatal Workplace Injuries in 1997: A Collection of Data and Analysis (Report 934). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), July 1999.

 

 

*Transportation/Communications/Public Utilities

 

 

 

 

*Transportation/Communication/Public Utilities

aPercent distribution of employed persons obtained from Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1997 (Bulletin 2515). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; June 1999.

 

 

 

 

 

Fatality Rate Per 100,000 Workers

 

Figure 7. Occupational Fatality Rates in the Mining, Ag/Forest./Fish., TCPU, and Construction Industriesa .

 

 

 


aPercent distribution of employed persons obtained from Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1999 (Bulletin 2537). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; updated August 2001.

 

Fatality Rate per 100,000 Workers

 

Figure 8. Occupational Fatality Rates in the Retail/Wholesale Trade, Services, Public Administration, and Manufacturing Industriesa.

 


aPercent distribution of employed persons obtained from Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1999 (Bulletin 2537). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; updated August 2001.

 

 

Figures 5-14 show the external cause(s) of death for work-related fatalities by industry.  Out of the ten industry divisions, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) were the leading or second leading cause of death in all but three.  Firearms and machinery were also causes of death in most industries.  Air transport, the second most common external cause of death for 1999, was not as common in 2000, although a single incident was responsible for all four Finance/Insurance/Real Estate fatalities.

 


Figure 9. Transportation/ Communication & Public Utilities Occupational Fatalities- Year 2001.


 

Figure 5

 


 


Machine

 

Poisoning

 

Suicide

 

Number of Fatalities

 
Figure 6

 

 

Figure 7

 

 

Figure 8

 

 

Figure 9

 

 

Figure 10

 

 

Figure 11

 

 

Figure 10. Construction Fatalities for the Year 2001.

 

Number of Fatalities

 

 

 

 


Figure 11. Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing Fatalities for Year 2001.

 


 

Number of Fatalities

 
 

 

 

 

 


Figure 12. Manufacturing Deaths in Year 2001.


 

 

Number of Fatalities

 
 

 

 


Figure 13. Services Industries Deaths in the Year 2001.


 

Number of Fatalities

 
 


Figure 14. Public Administration Occupational Fatalities for the Year 2001.

Number of Fatalities

 

 

 


Figure 15. Mining Industry Occupational Fatalities for the Year 2001.

Number of Fatalities

 

 

 


Figure 16. Finance/ Insurance/ Real Estate Industry Fatalities for the Year 2001.

 

Number of Fatalities

 

 

 

 

 

 


Figure 17. Wholesale Trade Industry Occupational Deaths for the Year 2001.


 

Number of Fatalities

 
 

 


Figure 18. Retail Trade Industry Occupational Fatalities for the Year 2001.

 

Number of Fatalities

 

 

 


External Cause of Death

 

Figure 19 shows the external cause(s) of death for work-related fatalities as classified by E-code according to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) were the leading cause of occupational deaths (20%) in 2001. The number of motor vehicle collision deaths was decreased in 2001 to 22 compared to 39 (33%) deaths in the year 2000. The decreased number observed in 2001 is most likely due to the fact that the classification of a motor vehicle collision fatality is now divided further into 2 specific categories. Motor vehicle collision fatalities are now separated into those that occur either to a person while within a vehicle or to a person struck by a vehicle, whereas, both were included in the same category in previous years in both the Kentucky and national FACE databases. Being struck by an object (n= 14) and falls (n= 13) followed as being the second (13%) and third (12%) major causes of occupational deaths. Ag machine related fatalities (n= 12) still ranked among the principal external causes of death (11%) as well as deaths due to other machines. Eight occupational homicides and 4 suicides were recorded. Explosions and electrocutions accounted for 4 work-related deaths each. Three occupational fatalities each occurred due to suffocation and to overexertion/ heat exhaustion.

Targeted interventions aimed at motor vehicle collision, being struck by something, falls, and machinery deaths warrant further investigation. A case control study examining motor vehicle collisions is currently underway and the hope is that new risk factors, which contribute to these fatalities, will be identified and elucidated. As well, a recent death involving a fall in the construction industry is the target of a current case investigation. Prevention strategies based on these data and newly identified cases will be developed, implemented and disseminated.  

 

Figure 19. Fatalities by External Cause of Death.

 

 

Number of Fatalities

 

 

 


Occupation

Table 7. Work-related Fatalities by Occupation in 2001.

Occupation

Number(%)

US Ratea

Operators, fabricators,

   laborers

36   (34)

11.7

     Transportation, material

       moving

16   (15) 

22.9

     Handlers, equipment

       cleaners, helpers,

       laborers

15   (14)

11.7

     Machine operators,

       assemblers, inspectors

5    (5)

3.2

Farming, forestry, fishing

23   (21)

23.5

Precision production, craft,

   repair

22   (20)

7.6

Technical, sales,

   administrative support

14   (13)

1.8

Managerial, professional

   specialty

6    (5)

1.6

Service

6    (5)

2.4

Military

2    (2)

 

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a Employment averages obtained from Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1999 (Bulletin 2537). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; updated August 2001. Rates were calculated as the number of occupational fatalities per 100,000 workers.

 

            Figure 12

 

 

Figure 13

 

 

Figure 14


 

Occupation

 

Table 76 represents Kentucky work-related fatalities by occupation, classified using the Alphabetical Index of Industries and Occupations.  The Operators/Fabricators/Laborers occupations accounted for the majority of occupational deaths in Kentucky in 2001 (34%). The second highest number of deaths was observed in the Farming/Forestry/Fishing occupation (21%). The Precision Production/Craft/Repair occupations had approximately the same percentage of deaths (20%). The fewest number of deaths were in the Services and Military occupations. The proportion of deaths per occupation division is roughly equivalent to the proportion of occupational deaths recorded in 2000. The US fatality rate is given for each occupation. Kentucky fatality rates were not calculated because the Kentucky occupational category definitions differ from the national occupational category definitions.The division of operators/fabricators/laborers accounted for the largest portion (n=60, 48%) of the work-related deaths in the state.  Over half of the workers killed in this division were in transportation/material moving (n=32, 53%).  The second highest number of deaths occurred in the farming/forestry/fishing division (n=23, 19%).  The majority of these incidents were farming related (n=13, 57%) or logging/tree trimming related (n=8, 35%).  Figures 15-21 show the leading cause or causes of death for each occupational division.

 

                 

                  The primary cause of death is listed for the major occupational classes (Figures 20- 26). The most frequent cause of death in the Operators/Fabricators/Laborers occupation was being struck by something (n= 10) or by motor vehicle collisions (n= 9). Being struck by something (n= 9) also accounted for the majority of deaths in the Farming/Forestry/Fishing occupation followed by machinery related causes (n=6). A high number of deaths in the Precision Products/Craft/Repair occupation involved falls (n= 5). The Service occupation

 

recorded three deaths due to homicide and two deaths due to motor vehicle collisions. Motor vehicle collisions (n= 5) were the major cause of death in the Technical/Sales/Administrative support occupation. Both of the deaths that occurred in the Military occupation were a result of machinery and there was no single major cause of death over another for the Managerial/Professional occupation.  

Table 6.  Work-Related Fatalities by Occupation (Rates per 100,000 Workersa), 2000

 

 

  Occupation  Number (%)  KY Rate  US rateb

 

 

Operators, fabricators, laborers  60 (48)  20  12

Transportation, material moving  32 (26)  35  24

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, laborers  25 (20)  33  13

Machine operators, assemblers,

inspectors  3 (2)  2  3

 

Farming, forestry, fishing  23 (19)  50*  26

 

Precision production, craft, repair  16 (13)  8  8

 

Technical, sales, administrative support  9 (7)  2  2

 

Managerial, professional specialty  7 (6)  1  2

 

Service  6 (5)  2  3

 

Military  3 (2)  (c)  8

 

 

a Employment averages obtained from Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment, 1998 (Bulletin 2524). US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics; November 1999.

 

b Fatal Workplace Injuries in 1997: A collection of data and analysis (report 934). US Department of Labor, Bureau of the Census; July 1999.

 

c Military population was unavailable.  Therefore a rate could not be included.

 

 

*The fatality rate for farming, forestry, and fishing occupations is high partially because of the undercount of workers in this occupation.  A more accurate fatality rate for agricultural workers in Kentucky can be found by using the rate for the agriculture/forestry/fishing industry. 

 

 

 


 


 

Figure 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 16

Figure 17

Figure 18

Figure 19

Figure 20

Figure 21


External Cause of Death

 

Figure 22 presents work-related fatalities by external cause of death as classified by E-code according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9).  Again this year, nearly one-third (n=39) of the fatalities were due to motor vehicle incidents, making them the leading cause of occupational fatalities in Kentucky.

 

The second most common cause of death was due to being struck by falling objects (10%, n=13), such as trees (loggers) and rocks (miners).  Seven percent (n=9) of the fatalities were due to agricultural machinery, and ten percent (n=12) were due to other types of machinery.  Homicide, again, as in 1999, followed agricultural machinery, accounting for 6 percent (n=8) of the 2000 occupational fatalities.

 

Figure 20. Operators/Fabricators/Laborers Occupational Deaths in 2001.

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 21. Farming/Forestry/Fishing Occupational Deaths in 2001.

 

 

Figure 22. Precision Products/Craft/Repair Occupational Deaths in 2001.

 


 

 

Figure 23. Service Occupational Deaths in 2001.

 

Figure 24. Military Occupational Deaths in 2001.

 

 


 

 

 

 

Figure 25. Technical/Sales/Administrative Support Occupational Fatalities in 2001.

 

 

 

Figure 26. Managerial/Professional Specialty Occupational Deaths in 2001.

 

 

 

Air transport, which was the second leading external cause of death for 1999 after a 1500 percent increase from the year prior, decreased by nearly half (47%) for 2000.  Similar to last year, however, single incidents were responsible for multiple deaths.  All eight air transport fatalities occurred in just two incidents, both of which were plane crashes, whereas some of the 1999 fatalities also included helicopters.

 

Special Topics


 

SPECIAL TOPICS

 

Deaths Caused By Trees Agricultural Fatalities

 

            There were 4 deaths of workers involving falling trees in 2001. One case was of a construction laborer who was killed when he saved a co-worker from death by pushing him out of the path of a falling tree but then could not save himself. Other separate deaths occurred when a tree fell on a farmer while cutting and another when a tree fell on a logger during cutting. Of interest, a public utilities employee died while he was cutting down a dead tree. He had trimmed away most of the branches and had cut halfway through the trunk when the base snapped and the tree kicked back to kill him. This particular employee had cut thousands of trees before with the same company.  All the workers who were killed were white males: two were 61-years-old, 1 was 25-years-old, and one was 46-years-old.

 

Of these four occupational fatalities, only one of these workplace incidents involved a logger. The varied incidents observed above illustrate the continued need for prevention strategies aimed at tree safety not only in the logging industry but in other industries as well. In the Master Logger program, a trainee is shown all aspects of logging, including cutting trees safely. This is a very valuable program aimed at preventing deaths in the logging industry. Further access to worker training by those employees working not only in the logging industry but also in any industry that involves the cutting down of trees ought to be made available. Tree-cutting videos or illustrated brochures could be made available either through direct employer training, cooperative extension programs, the local farm bureau, or through other avenues available to the general public with the focus on safety and the correct way to cut down a tree. One aim of the FACE program for the next year will be the generation of prevention materials geared toward the general public in applicable industries and occupations in order to provide education on safe tree cutting.

 

Deaths due to Hyperthermia

 

The high temperature and high humidity conditions of last summer resulted in 2 occupationally related deaths due to heat exhaustion and heat exposure. One case involved the death of a carpenter who became hot after being on the job for a while, sat down and was later transported to the hospital where he died. The second death occurred when a laborer was stringing fence along a highway. He collapsed and died at the scene. The heat index (how the temperature feels when the air temperature and humidity are combined) for the day of the second laborer’s death was 97.

 

With these two incidents in mind, a FACE Hazard Alert was generated (Appendix B) this year in order to alert workers of the dangers of working in extreme heat and elevated humidity conditions by making them aware of the occupational deaths due to hyperthermia which occurred last year. The Hazard Alert also lists key ways to help prevent hyperthermia, such as drinking plenty of fluids and taking frequent breaks. The Hazard Alert was distributed to local labor unions and state cooperative extension offices. The document was also translated into Spanish to target the Hispanic worker population and distributed to the Migrant Network Coalition. The Kentucky Department for Public Health also served as a distribution point. It is

 

hoped that with these types of prevention materials, workers will be alerted to the dangers of working for long periods of time in heat and high humidity and that deaths to hyperthermia will be prevented.  

 

Although agricultural fatalities have fallen for 2000, the number of fatalities, and particularly the fatality rate, remain high for this industry.  Agriculture ranked third overall in number and second in rate for 2000 (ranked first in both in 1999).  As mentioned previously, the fatality rate for the Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing division is somewhat artificially inflated because employment estimates for farmers include only those who farm full-time.  Since many of Kentucky’s farmers have other jobs and farm only part-time, the number of those working in the agriculture industry is underestimated, and therefore, inflates the fatality rate for this division.  Still, a closer look at how these workers are being killed seems warranted.  Table 7 describes the 17 workers killed in this industry.  Continuing a positive trend, the proportion of occupational fatalities represented by agricultural machines has been steadily decreasing.  It has dropped from twenty percent in 1996 to fifteen percent in 1997, to eleven percent in 1998, to nine percent in 1999, to a five-year low of seven percent for 2000.  While the percentage of agricultural machinery related deaths has indeed dropped, it still accounts for about half (53%) of the Agriculture industry fatalities.

Of the 9 deaths due to agricultural machinery in the agricultural industry (down from 11 in 1999), all were related in some way to tractors and some included attachments such as rotary mowers.  Two other incidents were also tractor related but were classified as an MVC (roadway) and a struck-by (tree limb).  There were three deaths due to tractor overturns (four in 1999), six due to falling from or standing next to a tractor and then being run over by it or its attachment, one due to getting caught in a rotating shaft, and one who was struck by a tree limb while driving a tractor.  Forty-seven percent (n=8) of all agricultural-related deaths to farmers were age 60 or over.


 

Table 7.  Agricultural Fatalities, 2000

 

 

Characteristic   Number (%)

 

 

Total   17   (100)

Race/Ethnicity

White   17   (100)

Sex

Male   17   (100)

Age

20-29   1   (6)

30-39   2   (12)

40-49   1   (6)

50-59   5   (29)

60-69   3   (18)

70-79   1   (6)

80 and Over   4   (23)

External cause of death

Agricultural machine   9   (53)

Motor vehicle   3   (17)

Animal related   1   (6)

Falling object   1   (6)

Fall   1   (6)

Electrocution   1   (6)

Struck by/Caught in   1   (6)