Richard N. Greenberg, M.D.
Professor of Medicine
of Infectious Diseases
The Belinda Mason Carden and Paul Mason Professor of HIV/AIDS Research and Education, 2001-2006
Tufts University School of Medicine
Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN
Louisiana State University, New Orleans
Infectious Diseases, Louisiana State University Medical Center
NIH Training, University of Virginia Medical Center (Dr. Richard
American Board of Internal Medicine
American Board of Internal Medicine, Subspecialty of Infectious Diseases
Special Consultant for Smallpox Eradication Program, WHO, Bihar State, India, 1974-5
EIS Officer assigned to New Orleans, CDC, 1974-6
•Treatment for fungal infections
•Treatment and prevention for C.difficile disease
•Treatment for infections in febrile neutropenic patients
•Vaccine development and trials: Hep A & B ,VZV,
pneumococcal, HIV, HSV
•Treatment and prevention of viral diseases (e.g., West
•Physiology of E. coli heat stable enterotoxin
and its family of endogenous human
hormones including guanylin and uroguanylin.
•Lipid physiology and toxicity of HIV protease inhibitor
•Vaccine trials including vaccines that protect against
HIV, hepatitis viruses,
pneumococcal disease, and bioterrorism (e.g., smallpox,
•Early phase trials of antimicrobials or other therapies
directed against HIV,
community-acquired pneumonia, Clostridium difficile,
and fungal infections.
Current Grant Activity
||PPD Development (Joint
Vaccine Acquisition Program)
|| Principal Investigator
Protease Inhibitors and Atherosclerosis
||National Heart Lung and
Protease Inhibitor, Macrophage Function and Estrogen
|| National Heart Lung and
and Drug Studies
||Acambis; Vaxgen; Boehringer
Ingelheim; Bristol Myers Squibb Company; Dynport Vaccine Company;
Merck and Company, Inc.; Fujisawa; Schering Plough Co.;
Bavarian-Nordic, Vixsys, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson and Johnson
||Multiple dates (active
White Title III Program
||Kentucky AIDS Education
and Training Center
||VA COOP: Evaluation Unit Planning
Grant for Smallpox Vaccine Trial VA-COOP552
||Dept. of Veterans Affairs
peptide and NaCl homeostasis
||VA COOP: Shingles
Prevention Trial VA-COOP4036
Carrithers SL, BA Jackson, WY Cai, RN Greenberg, CE Ott.
Regulation of intestinal guanylin and uroguanylin mRNA expression by dietary
salt intake. Regulatory Peptides 2002 Jul 15;107(1-3):87-95.
Mayhew CN, LJ Mampuru, D Chendil, MM Ahmed, JD Phillips,
RN Greenberg, HL Elford and VS Gallicchio. Suppression
of retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency disease (murine AIDS) by trimidox
and didox: novel ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors with less bone marrow
toxicity than hydroxyurea. Antiviral Res. 2002;56:167-81.
Walsh TJ, P Pappas, D Winston, HM Lazarus, F Petersen,
J Raffalli, S Yanovich, P Stiff, RN Greenberg, G Donowitz,
and J Lee, for the NIAID Mycoses Study Group. Voriconazole compared with
liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients
with neutropenia and persistent fever. New Engl J Med 346:225-234, 2002.
Greenberg RN, PJ Cagnoni, JR Wingard,
MM Prendergast, KB Tong. Factors associated with increased hospital costs
in patients treated with lipid-based amphotericin B for empirical therapy.
Journal of Medical Economics 5:109-118, 2002.
Martin C, S Roberts, and RN Greenberg.
Voriconazole treatment of disseminated paecilomyces infection in a patient
with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin
Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 1;35(7):e78.
Richard Greenberg--infectious disease
specialist at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center interviewed
by Pam Das. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Jan:3(1):52-5.
MS Santos-Neto, SL Carrithers, A Carvalho, HAS Monteiro,
RN Greenberg, LR Forte, and MC Fonteles. Guanylin and
its lysine-containing analogue in the isolated perfused rat kidney: interaction
with chymotrypsin inhibitor. Pharmacology
and Toxicology 2003,92:114-120.
Dressman J, J Kincer, SV Matveev, L Guo, RN Greenberg,
T Guerin, d Meade, X-A Li, W Zhu, A Uittenbogaard, ME Wilson, and E Smart.
HIV protease inhibitors promote atherosclerotic lesion formation independent
of dyslipidemia by increasing CD36-dependent cholesteryl ester accumulation
in macrophages. Journal
of Clinical Investigation 2003,111:389-397.
Greenberg RN, J Feinberg, J Goodrich,
RS Pilson, and P Siemon-Hryczyk. Long-term efficacy and safety of twice-daily
saquinavir soft gel capsule (SGC), with or without nelfinavir, and three-times-daily
saquinavir-SGC, in triple combination therapy for HIV infection: 100-week
Perfect JR, KA Marr, TJ Walsh, RN Greenberg,
B DuPont, J de-la-Torre-Cisneros, G Just-Nubling, HT Schlamm, I Lutsar,
A Espinel-Ingroff, E Johnson. Voriconazole treatment for less-common,
emerging, or refractory fungal infections. Clin
Infect Dis. 2003, 6(9):1122-31.
Carrithers SL, Ott CE, Hill MJ, Johnson BR, Cai W, Chang
JJ, Shah RG, Sun C, Mann EA, Fonteles MC, Forte LR, Jackson BA, Giannella
RA, Greenberg RN. Guanylin and uroguanylin
induce natriuresis in mice lacking guanylyl cyclase-C receptor. Kidney
Int. 2004 Jan;65(1):40-53.
Greenberg RN, Schosser RH, Plummer EA,
Roberts SE, Caldwell MA, Hargis DL, Rudy DW, Evans ME, Hopkins RJ. Urticaria,
exanthems, and other benign dermatologic reactions to smallpox vaccination
in adults. Clin
Infect Dis. 2004 Apr 1;38(7):958-65.
Yu VL, Greenberg RN, Zadeikis N, Stout JE, Khashab
MM, Olson WH, Tennenberg AM. Levofloxacin efficacy in the treatment of
community-acquired legionellosis. Chest 2004 June;125(6):2135-9.
Avison MJ, Nath A, Greene-Avison R, Schmitt FA, BAles Ra,
Ethisham A, Greenberg RN, Berger Jr. Inflammatory changes and
breakdown of microvascular integrity in early human immunodeficiency virus
dementia. J Neurovirol. 2004 Aug;10(4):223-32.
Avison MJ, Nath A, Greene-AvisonR, Schmitt FA,
Greenberg RN, Berger JR. Neuroimaging correlates of HIV-associated
BBB compromise. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec;157(1-2):140-6.
Greenberg RN, Scott LJ, Vaughn HH, Ribes JA.
Zygomycosis (mucormycosis): emerging clinical importance and new
treatments. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Dec;17(6):517-25.
Greenberg RN, Kennedy JS, Clanton DJ, Plummer EA,
Hague L, Cruz J, Ennis FA, Blackwelder WC, Hopkins, RJ. Safety and
immunogenicity of new cell-cultured smallpox vaccine compared with
calf-lymph derived vaccine: a blind, single-centre, randomized
controlled trial. Lancet 2005;365:398-409.
Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson GR, Schmader KE, Straus SE,
Gelb LD, Arbeit RD, Simberkoff MS, Gershon AA, Davis LE, Weinber A, Boardman
KD, Williams HM, Zhang JH, Peduzzi PN, Beisel CE, Morrison VA, Guatelli JC,
Brooks PA, Kaufman CA, Pachucki CT, Neuzil KM, Betts RF, Wright PF, Griffin
MR, Brunell P, Soto NE, Marques AR, Keay SK, Goodman RP, Cotton DJ, Gnann
JWJr, Louitit J, Holodniy M, Keitel WA, Crawford GE, Teg SS, Lobo Z, Toney
JF, Greenberg RN, Keller PM, Harbecke R, Hayward AR, Irwin MR,
Kyriakides TC, Chan CY, Chan IS, Wang WW, Annunziato PW, Silber JL; Shingles
Prevention Study Group. A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and post-herpetic
neuralgia in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 2;352(22):140-6.
Avison MJ, Nath A, Greene-Avison R, Schmitt FA,
Greenberg RN, Berger JR, Neuroimaging correlates of HIV-associated BBB
compromise. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec; 157 (1-2):140-6.
Carrithers SL, C Pager, Rshah, RN Greenberg. Uroguanylin
activates the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal
kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase in colon carcinoma
cells via c GMP. Experimental Biology 2002, April 2002, New Orleans, La.
Ott CE, BA Jackson, RN Greenberg, SL
Carrithers. Effect of E.coli heat-stable enterotoxin STa, a mimic
of the endogenous guanylin peptide family, on renal function in rats on
a low salt diet. Experimental Biology 2002, April 2002, New Orleans, La.
Avison MJ, A Nath, RG Avison, RN Greenberg,
FA Schmitt, JR Berger. MR predictors of HIV dementia. 4th International
Symposium of NeuroVirology and 10th Conference on Neuroscience of HIV
Infection, Dusseldorf Germany, June 2002.
Avison MJ, A Nath, RG Avison, R Bales, RN Greenberg,
F Schmitt, JR Berger. 1H-MRS, MRI, and CSF predictors of HIV
dementia: Preliminary results from ongoing longitudinal studies. Amer
Acad Neurol. 54th Annual Meeting, Denver CO, April 2002.
Greenberg RN, CE Ott, BA Jackson, SL
Carrithers. Effect of Uroguanylin and E coli heat-stable enterotoxin
STa onrenal function in rats on a low and normal salt diet. . Experimental
Biology 2003, April 2003, San Diego CA.
Hopkins RJ, RN Greenberg, EA Plummer,
L Hague, D Clanton, V Johnson, D Fine, M Langford. Take rate and safety
of a new cell-cultured smallpox vaccine. ASM Biodefense Research Meeting.
Baltimore MD, March 2003.
Avison MJ, A Nath, RG Avison, R Bales, RN Greenberg,
F Schmitt, JR Berger. Microglial activation and BBB compromise in HIV-infected
patients. 55th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Acad. Neurol. Oahu Hawaii,
Greenberg RN, BA Plummer, SA Roberts,
MA Caldwell, DL Hargis, RJ Hopkins. Expected but unusual rashes in adults
after first Vaccinia vaccination. 6th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research
(NFID). Arlington MD, May 2003.
RJ Hopkins, R N Greenberg E A Plummer,
L Hague, D Clanton, V Johnson, D Fine, M Langford. Clinical Results of
New Cell-Cultured Smallpox Vaccine Evaluation: An Update. 43rd annual
ICAAC, Chicago IL, September 14-17, 2003.
R N Greenberg, G Anstead, R Herbrecht,
A Langston, K Marr, K Mullane, I Raad, G Schiller, M Schuster, J Van Burik
, J R Wingard, R Hare, G Corcoran. Posaconazole (POS) Experience in the
Treatment of Zygomycosis. 43rd annual ICAAC, Chicago IL, September 14-17,
Kennedy, JS, RJ Hopkins, DJ Clanton, RN Greenberg, J
Cruz, and FA Ennis. Human T-Cell Immune Responses of a New Cell-Cultured
Smallpox Vaccine: Phase 1 Comparative Trial to Dryvax(r). Proceedings
of the 41st Annual Meeting of Infectious Diseases Society of America,
San Diego, October 9-12, 2003.
Dressman J, B Coombs, RN Greenberg, T
Guerin, K Collard, and EJ Smart. HIV Protease Inhibitors Impair Endothelial
Nitric Oxide Synthase-mediated Vasodilatation in Response to Acetylcholine
and Bradykinin. 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections,
San Francisco CA, February 2004.
Collard K, RN Greenberg, T Guerin, and EJ Smart.
HIV Protease Inhibitor-Induced Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in LDL
Receptor Null Mice.11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic
Infections, San Francisco CA, February 2004.
Ott CE, K McMillin, R Mulligan, RN Greenberg,
BA Jackson, SL Carrithers. Altered Sodium Intake Modulates the Natriuretic
Effect of Exogenous Uroguanylin (UGN). Experimental Biology 2004, April
2004, Washington DC.
Fontales MC, RB prate, PHB Prata, HAS Monteiro, SL
Carrithers, RN Greenberg, and L. Forte. High salt diets prime the
kidney to sub-threshold doses of uroguanylin. Experimental Biology
2004, April 2004, Washington, DC.
Herbrecht R, K Marr, A Catanzaro, R Greenberg, H Tissot-Dupont, H Gallais, T Moore, G Corcoran, L Pedicone.
Posaconazole (POS) as Salvage Therapy for Invasive Fungal Infections (IFIs)
Unresponsive to Voriconazole: A Case Series. 44th annual
ICAAC, Washington, DC, October 31-November 2, 2004.
Greenberg RN, JR Kenner, EA Plummer, DL
Hargis, MA Vanhook, LS Danko, DW Meade, TR Talbot, KM Edwards, DL
Hunter, A Surti, M Gurwith, Phase I/II Comparison of LC16m8 with Dryvax:
Interim Report. 3rd Annual Amer Soc Microbiol Biodefense Research
Meeting, March 20-23, 2005, Baltimore, MD.
McKee K, R Greenberg, W Swiderski, E Plummer,
R Starner, I Henderson. Initial Evaluation of a Recombinant Clostridium
botulinum A/B Vaccine (rBV A/B) in Healthy Volunteers. Abstr 2258. 45th
Intersci Conf Antibiotics Chemother, Sept 21-24, 2005, New Orleans, LA.