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Internal Medicine

Internal Medicine

Division of Infectious Disease


Richard N. Greenberg, M.D.

E-mail: Richard N. Greenberg, M.D.
Phone: 859-323-6327
Fax: 859-323-1631
Office : MN682, UKMC
Lab: VA-D309

Richard N. Greenberg, M.D.
Professor of Medicine
Division of Infectious Diseases
The Belinda Mason Carden and Paul Mason Professor of HIV/AIDS Research and Education, 2001-2006

Medical School
Tufts University School of Medicine

Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN
Louisiana State University, New Orleans

Infectious Diseases, Louisiana State University Medical Center
NIH Training, University of Virginia Medical Center (Dr. Richard Guerrant 1979-1981)

Board Certifications
American Board of Internal Medicine
American Board of Internal Medicine, Subspecialty of Infectious Diseases

Special Training
Special Consultant for Smallpox Eradication Program, WHO, Bihar State, India, 1974-5
EIS Officer assigned to New Orleans, CDC, 1974-6

Clinical Interests
•Treatment for fungal infections
•Treatment and prevention for C.difficile disease
•Treatment for infections in febrile neutropenic patients
•Vaccine development and trials: Hep A & B ,VZV, vaccinia, bioterrorism,
pneumococcal, HIV, HSV
•Treatment and prevention of viral diseases (e.g., West Nile)

Research Interests
•Physiology of E. coli heat stable enterotoxin and its family of endogenous human
 hormones including guanylin and uroguanylin.
•Lipid physiology and toxicity of HIV protease inhibitor
•Vaccine trials including vaccines that protect against HIV, hepatitis viruses,
 pneumococcal disease, and bioterrorism (e.g., smallpox, anthrax).
•Early phase trials of antimicrobials or other therapies directed against HIV,
community-acquired pneumonia, Clostridium difficile, and fungal infections.

Current Grant Activity

Project title: SMPX-001
Sponsor: PPD Development (Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program)
Role: Principal Investigator
Begin/end: 10/04/01–12/31/05
Project title: HIV Protease Inhibitors and Atherosclerosis
Sponsor: National Heart Lung and Blood Institute
Role: Co-Investigator
Begin/end: 4/15/02–3/31/07
Project title: HIV Protease Inhibitor, Macrophage Function and Estrogen
Sponsor: National Heart Lung and Blood Institute
Role: Co-Investigator
Begin/end: 7/9/03–6/30/08
Project title: Vaccine and Drug Studies
Sponsor: Acambis; Vaxgen; Boehringer Ingelheim; Bristol Myers Squibb Company; Dynport Vaccine Company; Merck and Company, Inc.; Fujisawa; Schering Plough Co.; Bavarian-Nordic, Vixsys, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson and Johnson
Role: Principal Investigator
Begin/end: Multiple dates (active in 2005)
Project title: Ryan White Title III Program
Sponsor: HRSA
Role: Team Physician
Begin/end: 10/01/01–3/31/05
Project title: Kentucky AIDS Education and Training Center
Sponsor: HRSA
Role: Co-Investigator
Begin/end: 2005
Project title: VA COOP:  Evaluation Unit Planning Grant for Smallpox Vaccine Trial VA-COOP552
Sponsor: Dept. of Veterans Affairs
Role: Principal Investigator
Begin/end: 2004-present
Project title: Guanylin-family peptide and NaCl homeostasis
Sponsor: VA Merit
Role: Principal Investigator
Begin/end: 2005-2009
Project title: VA COOP: Shingles Prevention Trial VA-COOP4036
Sponsor: VA Merit
Role: Principal Investigator
Begin/end: 2005-2006

2002/2005 Publications
Carrithers SL, BA Jackson, WY Cai, RN Greenberg, CE Ott. Regulation of intestinal guanylin and uroguanylin mRNA expression by dietary salt intake. Regulatory Peptides 2002 Jul 15;107(1-3):87-95.

Mayhew CN, LJ Mampuru, D Chendil, MM Ahmed, JD Phillips, RN Greenberg, HL Elford and VS Gallicchio. Suppression of retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency disease (murine AIDS) by trimidox and didox: novel ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors with less bone marrow toxicity than hydroxyurea. Antiviral Res. 2002;56:167-81.

Walsh TJ, P Pappas, D Winston, HM Lazarus, F Petersen, J Raffalli, S Yanovich, P Stiff, RN Greenberg, G Donowitz, and J Lee, for the NIAID Mycoses Study Group. Voriconazole compared with liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with neutropenia and persistent fever. New Engl J Med 346:225-234, 2002.

Greenberg RN, PJ Cagnoni, JR Wingard, MM Prendergast, KB Tong. Factors associated with increased hospital costs in patients treated with lipid-based amphotericin B for empirical therapy. Journal of Medical Economics 5:109-118, 2002.

Martin C, S Roberts, and RN Greenberg. Voriconazole treatment of disseminated paecilomyces infection in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 1;35(7):e78.

Richard Greenberg--infectious disease specialist at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center interviewed by Pam Das. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003 Jan:3(1):52-5.

MS Santos-Neto, SL Carrithers, A Carvalho, HAS Monteiro, RN Greenberg, LR Forte, and MC Fonteles. Guanylin and its lysine-containing analogue in the isolated perfused rat kidney: interaction with chymotrypsin inhibitor. Pharmacology and Toxicology 2003,92:114-120.

Dressman J, J Kincer, SV Matveev, L Guo, RN Greenberg, T Guerin, d Meade, X-A Li, W Zhu, A Uittenbogaard, ME Wilson, and E Smart. HIV protease inhibitors promote atherosclerotic lesion formation independent of dyslipidemia by increasing CD36-dependent cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2003,111:389-397.

Greenberg RN, J Feinberg, J Goodrich, RS Pilson, and P Siemon-Hryczyk. Long-term efficacy and safety of twice-daily saquinavir soft gel capsule (SGC), with or without nelfinavir, and three-times-daily saquinavir-SGC, in triple combination therapy for HIV infection: 100-week follow-up. Antiviral therapy 2003,8:37-42.

Perfect JR, KA Marr, TJ Walsh, RN Greenberg, B DuPont, J de-la-Torre-Cisneros, G Just-Nubling, HT Schlamm, I Lutsar, A Espinel-Ingroff, E Johnson. Voriconazole treatment for less-common, emerging, or refractory fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2003, 6(9):1122-31.

Carrithers SL, Ott CE, Hill MJ, Johnson BR, Cai W, Chang JJ, Shah RG, Sun C, Mann EA, Fonteles MC, Forte LR, Jackson BA, Giannella RA, Greenberg RN. Guanylin and uroguanylin induce natriuresis in mice lacking guanylyl cyclase-C receptor. Kidney Int. 2004 Jan;65(1):40-53.

Greenberg RN, Schosser RH, Plummer EA, Roberts SE, Caldwell MA, Hargis DL, Rudy DW, Evans ME, Hopkins RJ. Urticaria, exanthems, and other benign dermatologic reactions to smallpox vaccination in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Apr 1;38(7):958-65.

Yu VL, Greenberg RN, Zadeikis N, Stout JE, Khashab MM, Olson WH, Tennenberg AM.  Levofloxacin efficacy in the treatment of community-acquired legionellosis.  Chest 2004 June;125(6):2135-9.

Avison MJ, Nath A, Greene-Avison R, Schmitt FA, BAles Ra, Ethisham A, Greenberg RN, Berger Jr.  Inflammatory changes and breakdown of microvascular integrity in early human immunodeficiency virus dementia.  J Neurovirol. 2004 Aug;10(4):223-32.

Avison MJ, Nath A, Greene-AvisonR, Schmitt FA, Greenberg RN, Berger JR.  Neuroimaging correlates of HIV-associated BBB compromise.  J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec;157(1-2):140-6.

Greenberg RN, Scott LJ, Vaughn HH, Ribes JA.  Zygomycosis (mucormycosis):  emerging clinical importance and new treatments.  Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004 Dec;17(6):517-25.

Greenberg RN, Kennedy JS, Clanton DJ, Plummer EA, Hague L, Cruz J, Ennis FA, Blackwelder WC, Hopkins, RJ.  Safety and immunogenicity of new cell-cultured smallpox vaccine compared with calf-lymph derived vaccine:  a blind, single-centre, randomized controlled trial.  Lancet 2005;365:398-409.

Oxman MN, Levin MJ, Johnson GR, Schmader KE, Straus SE, Gelb LD, Arbeit RD, Simberkoff MS, Gershon AA, Davis LE, Weinber A, Boardman KD, Williams HM, Zhang JH, Peduzzi PN, Beisel CE, Morrison VA, Guatelli JC, Brooks PA, Kaufman CA, Pachucki CT, Neuzil KM, Betts RF, Wright PF, Griffin MR, Brunell P, Soto NE, Marques AR, Keay SK, Goodman RP, Cotton DJ, Gnann JWJr, Louitit J, Holodniy M, Keitel WA, Crawford GE, Teg SS, Lobo Z, Toney JF, Greenberg RN, Keller PM, Harbecke R, Hayward AR, Irwin MR, Kyriakides TC, Chan CY, Chan IS, Wang WW, Annunziato PW, Silber JL; Shingles Prevention Study Group. A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jun 2;352(22):140-6.

Avison MJ, Nath A, Greene-Avison R, Schmitt FA, Greenberg RN, Berger JR, Neuroimaging correlates of HIV-associated BBB compromise. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Dec; 157 (1-2):140-6.

2002/2005 Abstracts
Carrithers SL, C Pager, Rshah, RN Greenberg. Uroguanylin activates the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase in colon carcinoma cells via c GMP. Experimental Biology 2002, April 2002, New Orleans, La.

Ott CE, BA Jackson, RN Greenberg, SL Carrithers. Effect of E.coli heat-stable enterotoxin STa, a mimic of the endogenous guanylin peptide family, on renal function in rats on a low salt diet. Experimental Biology 2002, April 2002, New Orleans, La.

Avison MJ, A Nath, RG Avison, RN Greenberg, FA Schmitt, JR Berger. MR predictors of HIV dementia. 4th International Symposium of NeuroVirology and 10th Conference on Neuroscience of HIV Infection, Dusseldorf Germany, June 2002.

Avison MJ, A Nath, RG Avison, R Bales, RN Greenberg, F Schmitt, JR Berger. 1H-MRS, MRI, and CSF predictors of HIV dementia: Preliminary results from ongoing longitudinal studies. Amer Acad Neurol. 54th Annual Meeting, Denver CO, April 2002.

Greenberg RN, CE Ott, BA Jackson, SL Carrithers. Effect of Uroguanylin and E coli heat-stable enterotoxin STa onrenal function in rats on a low and normal salt diet. . Experimental Biology 2003, April 2003, San Diego CA.

Hopkins RJ, RN Greenberg, EA Plummer, L Hague, D Clanton, V Johnson, D Fine, M Langford. Take rate and safety of a new cell-cultured smallpox vaccine. ASM Biodefense Research Meeting. Baltimore MD, March 2003.

Avison MJ, A Nath, RG Avison, R Bales, RN Greenberg, F Schmitt, JR Berger. Microglial activation and BBB compromise in HIV-infected patients. 55th Annual Meeting of the Amer. Acad. Neurol. Oahu Hawaii, April 2003.

Greenberg RN, BA Plummer, SA Roberts, MA Caldwell, DL Hargis, RJ Hopkins. Expected but unusual rashes in adults after first Vaccinia vaccination. 6th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research (NFID). Arlington MD, May 2003.

RJ Hopkins, R N Greenberg E A Plummer, L Hague, D Clanton, V Johnson, D Fine, M Langford. Clinical Results of New Cell-Cultured Smallpox Vaccine Evaluation: An Update. 43rd annual ICAAC, Chicago IL, September 14-17, 2003.

R N Greenberg, G Anstead, R Herbrecht, A Langston, K Marr, K Mullane, I Raad, G Schiller, M Schuster, J Van Burik , J R Wingard, R Hare, G Corcoran. Posaconazole (POS) Experience in the Treatment of Zygomycosis. 43rd annual ICAAC, Chicago IL, September 14-17, 2003.

Kennedy, JS, RJ Hopkins, DJ Clanton, RN Greenberg, J Cruz, and FA Ennis. Human T-Cell Immune Responses of a New Cell-Cultured Derived
Smallpox Vaccine: Phase 1 Comparative Trial to Dryvax(r). Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of Infectious Diseases Society of America, San Diego, October 9-12, 2003.

Dressman J, B Coombs,  RN Greenberg, T Guerin, K Collard, and EJ Smart. HIV Protease Inhibitors Impair Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase-mediated Vasodilatation in Response to Acetylcholine and Bradykinin. 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, San Francisco CA, February 2004.

Collard K, RN Greenberg, T Guerin, and EJ Smart. HIV Protease Inhibitor-Induced Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in LDL Receptor Null Mice.11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, San Francisco CA, February 2004.

Ott CE, K McMillin, R Mulligan, RN Greenberg, BA Jackson, SL Carrithers. Altered Sodium Intake Modulates the Natriuretic Effect of Exogenous Uroguanylin (UGN). Experimental Biology 2004, April 2004, Washington DC.

Fontales MC, RB prate, PHB Prata, HAS Monteiro, SL Carrithers, RN Greenberg, and L. Forte.  High salt diets prime the kidney to sub-threshold doses of uroguanylin.  Experimental Biology 2004, April 2004, Washington, DC.

Herbrecht R, K Marr, A Catanzaro, R Greenberg, H Tissot-Dupont, H Gallais, T Moore, G Corcoran, L Pedicone.  Posaconazole (POS) as Salvage Therapy for Invasive Fungal Infections (IFIs) Unresponsive to Voriconazole:  A Case Series.  44th annual ICAAC, Washington, DC, October 31-November 2, 2004.

Greenberg RN, JR Kenner, EA Plummer, DL Hargis, MA Vanhook, LS Danko, DW Meade, TR Talbot, KM Edwards, DL Hunter, A Surti, M Gurwith, Phase I/II Comparison of LC16m8 with Dryvax: Interim Report. 3rd Annual Amer Soc Microbiol Biodefense Research Meeting, March 20-23, 2005, Baltimore, MD.

McKee K, R Greenberg, W Swiderski, E Plummer, R Starner, I Henderson. Initial Evaluation of a Recombinant Clostridium botulinum A/B Vaccine (rBV A/B) in Healthy Volunteers. Abstr 2258. 45th Intersci Conf Antibiotics Chemother, Sept 21-24, 2005, New Orleans, LA.

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