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The Ohio Valley Appalachia Regional Geriatric Education Center was established October 1, 1985 to provide education and training opportunities for health professionals and other personnel in order to enhance the availability and the quality of health care for older adults. The OVAR/GEC is a member of the National Association of Geriatric Education Centers, a national geriatric education initiative funded by the USDHHS, Health Resources and Services Administration, US Public Health Service, Bureau of Health Professions. OVAR/GEC is administratively based at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center under the direction of the College of Public Health and serves as a base for communication and program collaboration for a consortium of four universities in a three-state region. Our consortium members are:

Success Stories

“I have enjoyed working with you.  I feel it has helped me teach my nursing students better.  Yesterday I lectured on dementia, delirium, and the amnestic disorders.  I had a much better lecture because of OVAR.”
-Retiring faculty, Kentucky State University

“Week two of the Alzheimer’s clinic.  I really enjoyed working as part of an interdisciplinary team.  There is so much to think of and I felt working as a team, we were much more thorough and could better meet the family and patient needs and concerns.  I had a patient who recently had Alzheimer’s….  These encounters have so far been very beneficial to my understanding and management of Alzheimer’s disease.”
-Nurse Practitioner student, University of Cincinnati (OVAR consortium university)

“This was by far the best training of the day. Very useful information for direct service delivery. Great resources.”  and “Offer this at every conference. Thank you for presenting this workshop! Excellent presentation with content including related cultural data- attitudes, philosophy, mind, heart & soul of our farmers & their families. Speaker very knowledgeable.”
-Attendees at OVAR-sponsored Summer Series on Aging session

Photo of Arleen JohnsonArleen Johnson, Ph.D., M.S.W.,
Director, OVAR Geriatric Education Center
UK College of Public Health
Link to full biosketch (PDF format)

I have been a health care worker and educator for 36 years. Since 1985, I have served the OVAR/GEC as Director (11 yrs), Co-Director (11 yrs) and Project Manager/ Evaluator (3 yrs). I have a history of funded research, with over 40 externally funded grants and have over 30 peer reviewed publications. I was a founding member of the Geriatrics Emergency Preparedness Training and Response GEC Collaborative, have served on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Education since 2007, and served on the NAGEC and NAGE Boards from 2001-2003 and 2006-2009.

Hardin Stevens, MA
Associate Director, OVAR Geriatric Education Center
UK College of Public Health

Core Faculty

Archana Kudrimoti, M.D.
UK College of Medicine – Family and Community Medicine
http://www.mc.uky.edu/familymedicine/faculty_kudrimoti.asp

Andrea Pfeifle, Ed.D.
UK College of Medicine – Family and Community Medicine
http://www.mc.uky.edu/familymedicine/faculty_pfeifle.asp

Deborah B. Reed, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., R.N.
UK College of Nursing
http://www.mc.uky.edu/Nursing/bios/reed.html

Nancy Stiles, M.D.
UK College of Medicine – Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
http://www.mc.uky.edu/pmr/Stiles.asp

Other partnerships and links of interest:

Alzheimer’s Association, Greater Kentucky/Southern Indiana chapter, Lexington location
http://www.alz.org/kyin/

Kentucky Cooperative Extension
http://ces.ca.uky.edu/ces/

No Falls Kentucky – Safe Aging through KSPAN
Website under construction.

Summer Series on Aging
http://www.mc.uky.edu/aging/summerseries/summerseries.htm

University of Kentucky College of Public Health’s Gerontology Program
http://www.mc.uky.edu/gerontology/

University of Kentucky Physical Therapy Program – Dr. Anne Harrison, PT, Ph.D.
http://www.mc.uky.edu/healthsciences/faculty/harrison.html

Essentials of Dementia Care: Becoming an Effective Trainer

Date: Fall, 2013
Program Description: An estimated 4.5 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease. The quality of life for persons with Alzheimer's disease is directly related to the relationship they have with their direct care providers. In order to provide quality care, direct care providers must be trained in dementia care. This training will help trainers and educators to develop effective dementia care training programs for their direct care providers and family caregivers. Participants in the training will learn creative ways to teach dementia care concepts as well as innovative strategies for incorporating training into everyday work. Participants will receive a training manual complete with presentations and interchangeable learning activities for implementation within their training programs.
Who Should Attend: This training is designed for professionals (i.e. Physicians, Nurses, Nursing Home Administrators, Home Health, Area Agencies on Aging, Allied Health, Social Workers, Extension Agents, Staff Development Coordinators, and other health care professionals) who are responsible for implementing training in their care settings. Continuing Education credit for Nurses, Nursing Home Administrators, Social Workers and CHES (pending approval).

Agenda and Registration Form - Coming Soon

 

 


 

Save the Date!

30th Annual University of Kentucky Summer Series on Aging

June 3 – 6, 2013
Griffen Gate Marriott Resport and Spa, Lexington, KY

Monday, June 3: Pre-Conference Full-Day- Devoted to Dementia (Free-including CE)
Tuesday, June 4 through Thursday, June 6: Three days of workshops, seminars, interest groups, poster sessions, and celebrations commemorating 30 years of geriatric professional education.

(3 days: $285; 2 days: $235; 1 day: $180 Please note: Group, Student and Elder Rates available + $20 CE fee per professional discipline requested)

Topics will include: Brain health, emergency preparedness, long term care, elder abuse and exploitation, clinical and common chronic medical issues of aging, housing/livable communities, mental health, ethics, transportation/driving, healthy/positive aging, end-of-life, caregiver issues, spirituality, dementia care, and so much more...

Who should attend the 30th Annual UK Summer Series on Aging?
Nurses, social workers, case managers, certified health educators, psychologists, pharmacists, physical therapists, nursing home administrators, recreation therapists, activity professionals, dieticians, students, academics, and any interested professionals working in the field of aging.

Participants can earn more than 20 hours of Continuing Education Credit Applications will be made to Multiple Professional Disciplines

More Information Can Be Found Here.

Contact Information:

658 South Limestone
Lexington, KY 40506-0442
Phone: (859)257-1510
Fax: (859)323-4940

Director:

Arleen Johnson, Ph.D.
Director OVAR/GEC
Director, OLLI at UK in Lexington and Academic Donovan Scholars Program
658 South Limestone
Lexington, KY 40506-0442
Phone: 859-257-8314
FAX: 859-323-4940

Program Administrative Coordinator

Julia Brock, M.A.
Program Administrative Coordinator
University of Kentucky Council on Aging
Ohio Valley Appalachia Regional Geriatric Education Center (OVAR/GEC)
Ligon House - 658 South Limestone
Lexington KY 40506-0442
Phone: 859-257-1510
Fax: 859-323-4940

Emergency Preparedness & Response for Aging

Response of the National Association of Geriatric Education Centers to the Threat of Bioterrorism and Emergency Preparedness for Aging

In the year following the attacks of September 11, 2001 and the subsequent anthrax scare, key publications and reports called for training of the nation's health work force in the area of bioterrorism preparedness. Extensive reviews of the literature on bioterrorism revealed little information on age-appropriate care for older people exposed to the weaponized biological, chemical or nuclear agents that terrorists would use.

In the fall of 2002, the National Association of Geriatrics Education Centers (NAGEC) recognizing the need for information and training of health care providers to meet the need of older people, conducted a survey of what the nation's 46 Geriatrics Education Centers (GECs) were doing in the area of bioterrorism, and formed a Bioterrorism and Emergency Preparedness Committee.

The survey revealed that less than 50% offered any formal training in bioterrorism and only 10% had any geriatrics-specific training. This low figure becomes especially problematic when older people surveyed on this issue reveal that they rely on their health care providers and emergency departments for relevant information and care in the event of an attack by bioterrorists.

As a result of this documented need, the Health Resources and Services Administration awarded the OVAR/GEC and five other GEC's from CA, MO, NY, OH, TX curriculum development grants in Bioterrorism and Emergency Preparedness in Aging (BTEPA).

Since 2002, these universities have formed a Geriatric Emergency Preparedness and Response collaborative and received HRSA funding that has addressed curriculum and training on a nationally and international scale.

During the past year, the GEPR Collaborative has conducted:

1 international presentation (7th World Conference of the International Society for Gerontechnology in Vancouver, BC: 6 national presentations at the American Society on Aging and National Council on the Aging; UK Summer Series on Aging, and Asian American Pacific Islander Nurses Association; 1 national Veterans Administration videoconference; 1 national webinar on emergency preparedness for aging; and 1 Stanford Geriatric Education Center Faculty Development program.

Recent GEPR Publications Include:

8 articles/chapters in aging publications (Two chapters in Geriatric Mental Health Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, May 2010; Chapter in Handbook of Clinical Nutrition and Aging, 2nd Edition. 2009. AGHExchange Newsletter, Fall 2009 (Vol. 33/No. 1; Article in Public Health Reports; Article in Texas Public Health Journal; 2 articles in KY Association for Homes and Services for the Aging and KY Association of Health Care Facilities monthly member publications).

For more resources see OVAR/GEC training resources at http://www.mc.uky.edu/aging/gec.html .

Click on the topic of your choice. Click again to close.

OIG LTC & PC Directories
Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP)/Healthcare Planning Coalitions (HPC)
Biomedical Issues

Bartlett, J. (2003). Smallpox vaccination in 2003: Key information for clinicians. Clinical Infectious Disease, 36, 883-902.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smallpox information.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. - Public health emergency preparedness & response.

Medical management of biological casualties handbook (Bluebook). 5th edition. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.

Henderson, D. A., Inglesby, T. V., & O’Toole, T. (2002). Bioterrorism: Guidelines for medical and public health management. Chicago, IL: JAMA & Archives Journals AMA Press.

Henderson , D.A., Inglesby, T.V., & Bartlett , J.G. et.al. (1999). Smallpox as a biological weapon: Medical and public health management. JAMA, 281, 2127-2137.

Kentucky Cabinet for Health Services: Department for Public Health.

Kentucky Epidemiologic Notes and Reports.

Kentucky Injury Prevention and Research Center - Kentucky Terrorism response and preparedness.

May, T., Aulisio, M.P., & Silverman, R.D. (2003). The smallpox vaccination of health care workers: Professional obligations and defense against bioterrorism. Hastings Center Report.

Russell, P.K. Vaccines in Civilian defense against bioterrorism.

SmallPox exposure in a community (PDF format).

Suspected smallpox patient checklist (PDF format).

U.S. Food and Drug Administration - Risk assessment for food terrorism and other food safety concerns.

United States Government - 21st century complete guide to bioterrorism, biological and chemical weapons, germs and germ warfare, nuclear and radiation terrorism [Computer software].

World Health Organization - Smallpox Information

Aging and Public Emergencies/DVDs

Administration on Aging - Disasterpreparedness manual for the aging network.

Administration on Aging. (2003). Disaster services and the elderly.

Bell, B., Kara, G., & Batterson, C. (1978). Service utilization and adjustment patterns of elderly tornado victims in an American disaster. Mass Emergencies, 3, 71-81.

Bolin, R. & Klenow, D. (1983). Response of the elderly to disaster. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 16:4, 283-296.

Carbonell, J.G., Assistant Secretary for Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Statement before the Special Committee on Aging, U.S. Senate, February 11, 2002.

Center for Disease Control - Rapid assessment ofthe needs and health status of older adults after Hurricane Charley ---Charlotte, DeSoto and Hardee Counties, Florida, August 27--3, 2004 (vol.53/no.36-p837-840).

Center for Mental Health Services. (1999).Trainingmanual for mental health workers and human service workers in majordisasters.(2nd Ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Publication No. (ADM)90-538.

Cook, J.M. (2001). Post-traumatic stress disorder in older adults. PTSD Research Quarterly, 12 (3), 1-7.

Cook, J.M., Ruzek, J.I., & Cassidy, E. (2003, September). Possible association of posttraumatic stress disorder with cognitive impairment among older adults. Psychiatric Services, 54, 1223-1225.

Cowart, M. E. (1993). Disaster planning for older persons. Pepper Institute on Aging and Public Policy and, Department of Urban and Regional Planning. The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32306. PI-93-16

Ehlers, A.,Clark, D.M.(2003). Early psychological interventions for adult survivors of trauma: Areview.Biological Psychiatry, 53,817-826.

Friedsam, H. (1962). Older personsin disasters in G. Baker D. Chapman (Eds.).Man and society in disaster(pp. 151-182). New York: Basic Books.

Friedsam, H. (1961). Reactions ofolder persons to disaster-caused losses. The Gerontologist, 1,34-37.

Huerta, F. , Horton, R. (1978). Coping behavior of elderly flood victims. The Gerontologist, 18, 541-546.

Kilijanek, T.S., Drabok, T.E. (1979). Assessing long term impacts of a natural disaster: Focus on the elderly. The Gerontologist, 19, 555-566.

Lewis, M. (2003). The frail and hardy seniors of 9/11: The needs and contributions of Older Americans.

Melchior, G. (Director), San Bernardino County , Department of Mental Health & California State Department of Mental Health (Producers). (1992). Voices of wisdom: Seniors cope with disaster. San Bernardino, CA: Center for Mental Health Services, Washington, D.C.

Melick, M., Logue, J. (1985). The effect on the health and well-being of older women. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 21, 227-238.

Monson, C. How terroristic acts may affect veterans. (2003)

Norris, F.H., Phifer, J.F., Kaniasty, K. (1994). Individual and community reactions to the Kentucky floods:findings from a longitudinal study of older adults. In R.J. Ursano, B.G.McCaughey, C.S. Fullerton (Eds.).Individual and community responses totrauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos(pp. 378-402). Cambridge,England: Cambridge University Press.

O’Brien, N. (2003, January-February). Emergency preparedness for older people. Issue Brief. International Longevity Center.

Ostroff, S. (February, 2002). The CDC and emergency preparedness for the elderly and disabled. Testimony before the Senate Special Committee on Aging – NY Field Hearing. February 11, 2002.

Perry, Ronald W., Lindell,Michael K. (1997). Aged citizens in the warning phase of disasters: Re-examiningthe evidence?International Journal of Aging and Human Development,44(4), 257-267.

Phifer, J.F., Norris, F.H.(1989). Psychological symptoms in older adults following a natural disaster:Nature, timing, duration, and course.Journal of Gerontology: SocialSciences, 44, (6), S207-217.

Rochester-Monroe County Chapter. Special needs & concerns: Disaster preparedness for seniors by seniors.

Solomon, Z., Ginzburg, K. (1998). War Trauma and the aged. In J. Pomeranz (Ed.). Handbook of aging and mental health: An integrative approach (pp. 135-152). New York : Plenum Press.

Stewart, G. (2002). Natural and human-caused disaster: Caregiving for older adults.

Tierney, K., Petak, W., & Hahn, H. (1988). Disabled persons and earthquake hazards. University of Colorado Institute of Behavioral Science.

Ursano, R.J., McCaughey, B.G., Fullerton , C.S. (Eds.). (1996). Individual and community responses to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos. Cambridge , England : Cambridge University Press.

vanZelst, W., deBeurs, E., Smit, J. (2003). Effects of the September 11th attacks on symptoms of PTSD on community-dwelling older persons in the Netherlands . International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18 (2), 190.

Vinkers, D.J., Gusselkloo, J., Stek, M.L., Westendorp, G.J., & van der Mast, R.C. (2004). The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) detects changes in depressive symptoms after a major negative life event: The Lieden 85-plus study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, (1), 80-84.

Planning and Mobilizing Resources

Administration on Aging. (2004)Disasterpreparedness manual for the aging network.

Administration on Aging (2003). Disaster services and the elderly.

American Psychological Association Disaster Response Network.

American Red Cross.

American Red Cross. (1992). After a flood: The first steps.

American Red Cross. (1998). Are you ready for a flood or a flash flood?

American Red Cross. (1998). Are you ready for a heat wave?

American Red Cross. (1998). Are you ready for a hurricane?

American Red Cross. (1998). Are you ready for a thunderstorm?

American Red Cross. (1998). Are you ready for a tornado?

American Red Cross. (2002). American Red Cross homeland security advisory system recommendations for individuals, families, neighborhoods, schools, and businesses.

American Red Cross. (2002). Animal safety: Pets and disaster: Be prepared. American Red Cross. (2002). Family disaster planning.

American Red Cross. (2002). Financial preparations.

American Red Cross. (2002). Special needs and concerns: Disaster preparedness for seniors by seniors.

California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services-Terrorism Planning and Response.

Carbonell, J. G., Assistant Secretary for Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Statement Before the Special Committee on Aging, U.S. Senate, February 11, 2002.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2003, May 21). Public health emergency preparedness & response.

Center for Disease Control. (2004). Rapid assessment ofthe needs and health status of older adults after Hurricane Charley ---Charlotte, DeSoto and Hardee Counties, Florida, August 27--3, 2004.

Childress, J.F. (2003). Triage in response to a bioterrorist attack, in Moreno, J.D. (Ed.), In the wake of terror: Medicine and morality in a time of crisis. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

DeWolfe, D. J. (2000). Training manual: For mental health and human service workers in major disasters. Washington, D.C.: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Earthquake Survival Program. (2001). ESP focus/heat wave, 1-2. Federal Emergency Management Agency.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. Hurricanes, 33-38.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. Landslides and debris flow (mudslide), 61-63.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. Thunderstorms, 39-41.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. Tornadoes, 42-45.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. Winter storms and extreme cold, 46-48.

Felton, C. J. (2002, September). Project liberty: A public health response to New Yorkers' mental health needs arising from the World Trade Center terrorist attacks. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 79, 429-433.

Henderson, D. A., Inglesby, T. V., O’Toole, T. (2002). Bioterrorism: Guidelines for medical and public health management. Chicago, IL: JAMA & Archives Journals, AMA Press.

Huerta, F. Horton, R. (1978). Coping behavior of elderly flood victims. The Gerontologist, 19, 541-546.

Kentucky Cabinet for Health Services: Department for Public Health.

Kentucky Community Crisis Response Board.

Kentucky Epidemiologic Notes and Reports .

Kentucky Injury Prevention and Research Center - Terrorism response and preparedness.

Lewis, M. (2003). The frail and hardy seniors of 9/11: The needs and contributions of older Americans.

McFee, R. B. (2002, August). Preparing for an era of weapons of mass destruction (WME): Are we there yet? Why we should all be concerned. Part 1. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 44, 193-199.

Myers, D., Grubbs, R. B. (2002). Psychology of disaster and terrorism: Trained community crisis responder course. Frankfort, KY: Kentucky Community Crisis Response Board.

National Organization on Disability - Community involvement: Emergency preparedness.

O’Brien, N. (2003, January-February). Emergency preparedness for older people. Issue Brief. International Longevity Center.

Ostroff, S. (February, 2002). The CDC and emergency preparedness for the elderly and disabled. Testimony before the Senate Special Committee on Aging – NY Field Hearing. February 11, 2002 .

Pan American Health Organization. Gender and natural disasters.

Perry, Ronald W., Lindell,Michael K. (1997). Aged citizens in the warning phase of disasters: Re-examiningthe evidence?International Journal of Aging and Human Development,44(4), 257-267.

Rochester-Monroe County Chapter. Special needs & concerns: Disaster preparedness for seniors by seniors.

State Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity Inventory (2002). A voluntary rapid self-assessment.

Stewart, G. (2002). Natural and human-caused disaster: Caregiving for older adults.

Tierney, K., Petak, W., Hahn, H. (1988). Disabled persons and earthquake hazards. University of Colorado Institute of Behavioral Science.

University of Kentucky - EMS response to terrorism awareness-level training: bioterrorism.

Public Communication

Glass, T.A., Schoch-Spana, M. (2002). Bioterrorism and the people: How to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Disease, 34, 217-223

National Center for PTSD. Disasters and terrorism. Fact sheets for the public.

National Disaster Education Coalition. Winter storm. Talking about disaster: Guide for standard messages, 147-157.

Turner, R., Nigg, J., Paz, D. (1986). Waiting for disaster: Earthquake watch in California. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Communicating in a Crisis: Risk Communication Guidelines for Public Officials. Washington, D.C.: Department of Health and Human Services, 2002.

Wunsch-Hitzig, R., Plapinger, J., Draper, J., del Campo, E. (2002, September). Calls for help after September 11: A community mental health hotline. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 79, 417-428.

Mental and Behavioral Health

American Psychological Association Disaster Response Network.

Bell, B., Kara, G., Batterson, C. (1978). Service utilization and adjustment patterns of elderly tornado victims in an American disaster. Mass Emergencies, 3, 71-81.

Breslau, N., Davis, G.C., Andreski, P., Peterson, E.L., Schultz, L.R. (1997, November). Sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 54, 1044-1048.

Bolin, R. Klenow, D. (1983). Response of the elderly to disaster. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 16:4, 283-296.

Center for Mental Health Services. (1999).Psychosocial issues for older adults in disasters. Washington, D.C.: U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, Publication No.(SMA)99-3323.

Center for Mental Health Services. (1999).Trainingmanual for mental health workers and human service workers in majordisasters.(2nd Ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health andHuman Services, Publication No. (ADM)90-538.

Cook, J.M. (2001). Post-traumatic stress disorder in older adults. PTSD Research Quarterly, 12 (3), 1-7.

Cook, J.M., Ruzek, J.I., Cassidy, E. (2003, September). Possible association of posttraumatic stress disorder with cognitive impairment among older adults. Psychiatric Services, 54, 1223-1225.

DeWolfe, D. J. (2000). Training manual: For mental health and human service workers in major disasters. Washington, D.C.: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Ehlers, A., Clark, D.M. (2003)Early psychological interventions for adult survivors of trauma: A review.Biological Psychiatry, 53,817-826.

Felton, C. J. (2002, September). Project liberty: A public health response to New Yorkers’ mental health needs arising from the World Trade Center terrorist attacks. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 79, 429-433.

Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Riggs, D., Rauch, S., Franklin, M. (2004). Common reactions to trauma.

Friedsam, H. (1961). Reactions ofolder persons to disaster-caused losses. The Gerontologist, 1,34-37.

Galea, S., Resnick, H., Ahern, J., Gold, J., et al. (2002, September) Posttraumatic stress disorder in Manhattan, New York City, after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 79, 340-353.

Glass, T.A. Schoch-Spana, M. (2002). Bioterrorism and the people: How to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Disease, 34, 217-223.

Groopman, J. (2004, January 26). The grief industry - How much does crisis counseling help - or hurt? The New Yorker, 30-38.

Hall, M.J., Norwood, A.E., Ursano,R.J., Fulerton, C.S., Levinson, C.J. (2002). Psychological and behavioralimpacts of bioterrorism.PTSD Research Quarterly, 13, (4),1-7.

Herman, D., Felton, C.J., Susser, E. (2002, September). Mental health needs in New York State following the September 11th attacks. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 79, 322-331.

International Critical Incident Stress Foundation.

Kilijanek, T.S., Drabok, T.E. (1979). Assessing long term impacts of a natural disaster: Focus on the elderly. The Gerontologist, 19, 555-566.

Lee, Ramonia. (1997). Healing connections: Ethnic perspectives on spirituality and mental health.

Litz, B., Gray, M. (2002). Early intervention for mass violence: What is the evidence? What should be done? Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 9, (4), 266-272.

Melchior, G. (Director), San Bernardino County , Department of Mental Health & California State Department of Mental Health (Producers). (1992). Voices of wisdom: Seniors cope with disaster. San Bernardino, CA: Center for Mental Health Services, Washington, D.C.

Melick, M., Logue, J. (1985). The effect on the health and well-being of older women. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 21, 227-238.

Monson, C. How terroristic acts may affect veterans (2003).

Myers, D., Grubbs, R. B. (2002). Psychology of disaster and terrorism: Trained community crisis responder course. Frankfort, KY: Kentucky Community Crisis Response Board.

National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. (2003). Disasters and terrorism [Data file]. Available from National Technical Service Web site

National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. PILOTS Database. Retrieved November 10, 2003 , from www.ncptsd.org/publications/pilots/index.html An electronic index to the worldwide literature on post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental health consequences of exposure to traumatic events.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2002). Mental health and mass violence: Evidence-based early psychological intervention for victims/survivors of mass violence. A workshop to reach consensus on best practices. NIH Publication No. 02-5138, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. November 4, 2003

Norris, F.H., Phifer, J.F., Kaniasty, K. (1994). Individual and community reactions to the Kentucky floods:findings from a longitudinal study of older adults. In R.J. Ursano, B.G.McCaughey,C.S. Fullerton (Eds.).Individual and community responses totrauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos(pp. 378-402). Cambridge,England: Cambridge University Press.

Oriol, W. Psychosocial issues for older adults in disasters. DHHS Publication No. ESDRB SMA 99- 3323. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Center for Mental Health Services.

Pan American Health Organization. Gender and natural disasters.

Phifer, J.F., Norris, F.H.(1989). Psychological symptoms in older adults following a natural disaster:Nature, timing, duration, and course.Journal of Gerontology: SocialSciences, 44, (6), S207-217.

Shalev, A.Y. in R. Yehuda (Ed.).Treating trauma survivors with PTSD: Bridging the gap between interventionresearch and practice.Washington DC: American PsychiatricPress.

Smith, E.M., North, C.S., McCool, R.E., Shea, J.M.. (1990, February). Acute postdisaster psychiatric disorders: Identification of persons at risk. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 202-206.

Solomon, Z., Ginzburg, K. (1998). War Trauma and the aged. In J. Pomeranz (Ed.). Handbook of aging and mental health: An integrative approach (pp. 135-152). New York : Plenum Press.

Turner, R., Nigg, J., Paz, D. (1986). Waiting for Disaster: Earthquake Watch in California. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

Ursano, R.J., McCaughey, B.G., Fullerton , C.S. (Eds.). (1996). Individual and community responses to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

vanZelst, W., deBeurs, E., Smit, J. (2003). Effects of the September 11th attacks on symptoms of PTSD on community-dwelling older persons in the Netherlands. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18 (2), 190.

Vinkers, D.J., Gusselkloo, J., Stek, M.L., Westendorp, G.J., van der Mast, R.C. (2004). The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) detects changes in depressive symptoms after a major negative life event: The Lieden 85-plus study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, (1), 80-84.

Wooten, P. (1995). An interview with Sandy Ritz.

Wunsch-Hitzig, R., Plapinger, J., Draper, J., del Campo, E. (2002, September). Calls for help after September 11: A community mental health hotline. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 79, 417-428.

Ethical and Legal Issues

Annas, G. J. (2002, April 25). Legal issues in medicine: Bioterrorism, public health, and civil liberties. New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 1337-1342.

Annas, G.J. (2003). Terrorism and human rights, in Moreno, J.D.(Ed.), In the wake of terror: Medicine and morality in a time of crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Center for Law and the Public’s Health (2001). Model state emergency health powers act.

Childress, J.F. (2003). Triage in response to a bioterrorist attack, in Moreno, J.D. (Ed.), In the wake of terror: Medicine and morality in a time of crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cook, J.M., Ruzek, J.I., Cassidy, E. (2003, September). Possible association of posttraumatic stress disorder with cognitive impairment among older adults. Psychiatric Services, 54, 1223-1225.

Eckenwiler, L.A. (2003). Emergency health professionals and the ethics of crisis, in Moreno, J.D. (Ed.), In the wake of terror: Medicine and morality in a time of crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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